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Neil McNaughton

Issues concerning women Racial issues and the multicultural society 106 8 ➤ The background to racial problems in the UK ➤ Descriptions of the main pieces of race legislation ➤ The features and importance of the Stephen Lawrence case ➤ The importance of the Macpherson and Ousley Reports ➤ The work of the Commission for Racial Equality ➤ The broad issues of racial discrimination ➤ Forms of non-legislative race relations initiatives ➤ The issue of multiracialism IMMIGRATION Although Britain has, throughout its history, assimilated large numbers of different

in Understanding British and European political issues
Critical reflections on the Celtic Tiger

Sexual images and innuendo have become commonplace in contemporary advertising; they often fail to register in any meaningful way with the audience. This book examines the essentially racist stereotypes through which Irish people have conventionally been regarded have been increasingly challenged and even displaced perhaps by a sequence of rather more complimentary perspectives. The various developments that are signified within the figure of the Celtic Tiger might be considered to have radically altered the field of political possibility in Ireland. The enormous cuts in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment. The Celtic Tiger shows that one can use the rhetoric about 'social solidarity' while actually implementing policies which increase class polarisation. The book discusses the current hegemonic construction of Ireland as an open, cosmopolitan, multicultural, tourist-friendly society. The two central pieces of legislation which currently shape Irish immigration policy are the 1996 Refugee Act and the Immigration Bill of 1999. The book offers a critical examination of the realities of the Celtic Tiger for Irish women. Processes of nation state formation invariably invoke homogeneous narratives of ethnicity and national identity. To invoke a collective subject of contemporary Ireland rhetorically is to make such a strategic utopian political assumption. For the last few hundred years, the Gaeltacht has exemplified the crisis of Irish modernity. Culture becomes capital, and vice versa, while political action increasingly consists of the struggle to maintain democratic autonomy in the face of global market forces.

Rainer Forst

MCK4 1/10/2003 10:24 AM Page 71 4 Toleration, justice and reason Rainer Forst In contemporary debates about the idea and the problems of a multicultural society the concept of toleration plays a major but by no means clear and uncontested role. For some, it is a desirable state of mutual respect or esteem, while for others it is at best a pragmatic and at worst a repressive relation between persons or groups. In the following, I want to suggest an understanding of toleration that both explains and avoids these ambiguities. First, I distinguish between a

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Anti-Islam and anti-Muslim sentiments
Hilary Pilkington

of multicultural society. This has led to the conclusion that ‘the EDL is clearly Islamophobic’ (Allen, 2011: 293) and, although having successfully accommodated aspects of the diversity of contemporary multicultural Britain and not espousing a traditionally racist ideology, promotes a form of ‘new racism’ or ‘cultural racism’ (2011: 293). This chapter starts by critically outlining debates about how we define and measure ‘Islamophobia’, focusing on the question of whether Islamophobia is a new, and distinct, phenomenon or consists primarily in anti

in Loud and proud
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia
Paul Latawski
Martin A. Smith

international settlement of post-Cold War conflicts that made democratisation and enhancement of human rights important elements of the post-conflict peace-building process. Given the Bosnian conflict’s large-scale ethnic cleansing, another key normative feature embedded in the Dayton agreement was the re-building of a multicultural society. To this end, Annex 4 made constitutional provision that ‘all refugees and displaced persons

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Open Access (free)
Some philosophical obstacles and their resolution
David Heyd

that toleration in a multicultural society is based neither on the idea of the autonomy of other groups to form their own culture (since the value of autonomy is itself controversial), nor on some notion of cultural relativism. The very comparison between our culture and that of others is not the issue. At most the understanding and ‘recognition’ of other cultures may serve as a source for understanding the limits of justification of our own culture.10 I wish to argue that the tension between loyalty to cultural identity and commitment to democratic citizenship

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

these two ethnic communities had fought with the Germans in ‘previous wars’. chap3 28/5/02 70 13.31 Page 70 Germany which the reviewer almost desperately remarks: ‘Does Tichy fail to see that nature created people of different ethnic communities, and that those, who want to change this inflict severe harm to the ethnic communities.’ However, the reviewer knows the aim of Tichy: ‘the destabilisation of these ethnic communities, so that the plan to de-Germanise [entdeutschen] Germany and to lead it into a multicultural society still succeeds’ (DNZ 20/7/90). The

in The ideology of the extreme right
Open Access (free)
Passion and politics
Hilary Pilkington

respondents’ almost universal failure to recognise the structural conditions underpinning racism. In sharp contrast to the importance attached to distancing themselves from racism as they understand it, EDL activists openly articulate the belief that there is a ‘problem’ with Islam that is not associated with other aspects of multicultural society. The findings of this study demonstrate that Islam is understood by EDL activists as ‘separate and other’ in a way determined by the Runnymede Trust (1997) to be characteristic of an Islamophobic mindset. While amongst activists

in Loud and proud
Aspirations to non-racism
Hilary Pilkington

‘multicultural organisation made up of every community in this country’ (Tommy Robinson, cited in Allen, 2011: 287). This study identified some evidence of this broad acceptance of multiculturality. The term ‘multicultural’ for example is commonly used by respondents to describe society as they experience it: ‘we live in a multicultural society. We do, that’s a fact and that’s never gonna change’ (Jack). Lisa explains that she would never participate in actions such as vandalising mosques because ‘I think we are a multicultural country’. Tim sees the EDL as reflecting wider

in Loud and proud
Philip Lynch

tolerant party’ in which racism had no place. Thatcher warned that ‘a multicultural society will never be a united society’ during the election campaign but her comments did not attract much attention.39 There is little evidence to suggest that asylum policy brought electoral dividends. The Tories did not regain any seats in Kent where the pressures on the asylum system were particularly apparent. A Gallup poll taken shortly after the Townend affair gave the Conservatives only a narrow lead: 43 per cent identified them as the best party to handle the asylum issue

in The Conservatives in Crisis