The United States under Donald Trump has been charting a radically new course in Asia, a region that has long relied on America for stability and maintaining the balance of power. In the first half of his presidential term of 2017–21, the forty-fifth president reversed or sought to reverse many of the long-standing policies and initiatives pursued by Barack Obama and his predecessors, with potential long-term implications. A multilateral and multifaceted engagement strategy in the region is being replaced by a transactional approach to security
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, or North Korea) has been a recipient of international humanitarian aid from international organisations (IOs) and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) since 1995. In recent years, multilateral and unilateral sanctions in response to the DPRK’s nuclear programme have created a new layer of difficulty for humanitarians looking to engage with the authoritarian state. This paper explores how sanctions are affecting humanitarian work in practice, utilising interviews with practitioners. The research first surveys documentation, particularly from IOs, to establish how humanitarians understand contemporary need inside the country. Next, this paper examines the impacts of sanctions on aid efforts, with a particular focus on multilateral United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions and unilateral American measures. Unpacking humanitarian challenges and potential ways to navigate the sanctions regime provides a foundation for academics and humanitarian practitioners to better understand both the DPRK and possible avenues for principled, effective aid.
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Brazil to a position of protagonism in multilateral negotiations. He
is convinced that the country will fulfil its potential as a major global power that can
influence other states with a democratic and egalitarian vision. But he also recognises
A framed photo of Amorim and Lula perched on the top shelf of an eclectic bookcase, both men
smiling widely. The following day, Amorim would travel to the southern Brazilian city of
Curitiba, where he would visit Lula in prison. And he would receive news of a declaration by the
once authored, not
because of his own idiosyncratic way of doing politics but because of the strategic realignment
that his presidency represents.
According to Trump, his administration’s security strategy is guided by
‘principled realism’. The apparent incoherence of his foreign policy is as
indicative of what this entails as his specific interactions with other governments. With every
diplomatic encounter imagined as a stand-alone opportunity to strike a winning
‘deal’, the norms-based, multilateral system of global governance becomes
exercise of its power, through force
and the active division and dispersion of its competitors, boycotting every kind of multilateral
or regional agreement or bloc, from the European Union to UNASUR, from NAFTA to the BRICS.
Can this new American strategy be reversed? It is difficult to tell, but it is important to
understand that it didn’t come from nowhere, nor is it the exclusive work of President
Trump. The polarisation of American society and the internal divisions within the American
establishment will likely increase in the coming years, but it
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas
across Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore ( Koplitz et al. , 2016 ). The excess all-cause mortality
due to short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) polluting the air was
estimated at 11,880 deaths (95 per cent CI, 6,153–17,270) ( Crippa et al. , 2016 ).
Local NGOs and multilateral agencies based in Indonesia responding to people
suffering the choking haze had little knowledge, understanding or guidance of how to
reduce the impact for the community in need.
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
During the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic, an estimated US$ 10 billion was spent to
contain the disease in the region and globally. The response brought together
multilateral agencies, bilateral partnerships, private enterprises and foundations,
local governments and communities. Social mobilisation efforts were pivotal
components of the response architecture ( Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Laverack and Manoncourt, 2015 ; Oxfam International, 2015
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
– whether bilateral, multilateral or through pooled funds – should be dependent on at least bi-annual (twice yearly) updates of events on the ground’ ( 2010 : xxi) to ensure effective resource utilisation. Conditional modalities need to be carefully considered, as some ways of working (e.g. payment for results) may not be suitable or have negative, unintended consequences ( Clist and Dercon, 2014 ). In recognising uncertainty and complexity in the South Sudanese context, and the probability of non-linear outcomes, donors should encourage an on-going open dialogue with
’s official response to the cuts and its acute financial crisis,
while acknowledging that other international responses, such as bilateral and multilateral
discussions between UNRWA and potential donors and various diplomats, have been ongoing
throughout this period. Understandably, given UNRWA’s financial circumstances following
the announcement of the cuts, the campaign sought to encourage existing and
‘non-traditional’ state and non-state actors to commit funds to ensure that the
rights and needs of Palestinian refugees were met. By examining the
This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.