Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.
different rhetoric or are the differences
substantial? Why do the strategies of the oil majors vary and
change over time, and what conditions trigger such changes?
While interesting in their own right, these questions are also
important for the prospects of establishing a viable international
climate policy. Large multinational oil companies represent
significant target groups for mitigating climate change. More than
50 per cent of GHG emissions originate from the activities of
multinationalcorporations, and oil is responsible for about one
quarter of the ‘greenhouse
years of Robinson’s and subsequently Mary McAleese’s
Presidencies have coincided with a period of unparalleled expansion in
the Irish economy, which one investment banker at Morgan Stanley
likened to the roaring economic advances in the Asian Pacific by coining
the phrase ‘Celtic Tiger’.13 Amongst the most important contributory
factors behind the boom was the development of the European Single
Market and surge in the US economy. Multinationalcorporations and
investors from Europe and the USA
multinationals’, Industrial Relations Journal
Almond, P., Gonzalez, M.C., Gunnigle, P., Lavelle, J, Luque, D., Monaghan, S. and
Murray, G. (2014), ‘Multinationals and regional economies: embedding the regime
shoppers’, Transfer, 20:2, 237–53.
Almond, P. and Rubery, J. (2000), ‘Deregulation and societal systems’, Advances in
Organization Studies, 4, 277–94.
Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (1996), ‘Subsidiary embeddedness and control in the multinationalcorporation’, International Business Review, 5:5, 487–508.
Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (2002), ‘In search of
is considered to have been essential in creating the
conditions for the possibility of an economic boom. The enormous cuts
in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment that, in time, induced
investment by some of the largest and most dynamic multinationalcorporations in the world. The introduction of formally free schooling in
the late 1960s is also often identified as a measure that would ultimately
serve to alter the economic fortunes of the Irish Republic.23 It has become
continue their economic
4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 5
endeavours. Private companies in ‘peaceful’ states also have a position in
these commodity chains, with conflict goods such as diamonds, oil and timber
being traded through multinationalcorporations. The consumption of these
otherwise licit goods occurs primarily in ‘peaceful’ developed nations, as does
the consumption of illicit goods associated with conflicts, including cocaine
and heroin. Private security firms from within the conflict-affected country or
Competing imaginaries of science and social order in responsible (research and) innovation
Stevienna de Saille and Paul Martin
, to discuss
genetically modified organisms (GMOs), one of the most intractable
technological controversies of our time.
While those involved in creating GMOs, particularly multinationalcorporations such as Monsanto, have been characterised as a kind of
‘Monsters Inc.’, likewise the biotechnology sector has sometimes
appeared to view the public as a kind of monstrous regiment, an army
of dissent intent on thwarting the aspirations of a field that seeks only
to improve upon nature to feed the world (Riley-Smith, 2014). We
draw the metaphor from the highly successful
On the other hand, others dispute the validity of the claim that
international economic integration or globalisation has produced
the ‘global corporation’, which owes allegiance to no state.
Rather, they posit that multinationalcorporations operate within
enduring political structures that continue to account for striking
differences between them (Doremus et al., 1998; Pauly and Reich,
1997). Multinationalcorporations are not only under the control
of all the states in which they operate, they are also largely
controlled by their
Postcolonial women writers in a transnational frame
issues of belonging that have both national and translocal
resonances, on occasion establishing cross-border aﬃliations as they proceed.
With this in mind, it is worth spending a moment looking more closely at
feminist postcolonial understandings of the cross-national or translocal.
(These terms are less obviously tied to the operations of multinationalcorporations than is ‘transnational’ although translocal links, too, can be forged
through globalising processes of cultural dissemination. ‘International’ of
course denotes a crucial Marxist legacy of internationalist
rise of new international actors; neo-colonialism .
The process by which economic, political and cultural power and influence
are transferred to organisations such as multinationalcorporations and
so removed from the control of those most affected by them. This
involves the increasing interdependence of states, social and economic
organisations and individuals in the