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Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

Open Access (free)
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

different rhetoric or are the differences substantial? Why do the strategies of the oil majors vary and change over time, and what conditions trigger such changes? While interesting in their own right, these questions are also important for the prospects of establishing a viable international climate policy. Large multinational oil companies represent significant target groups for mitigating climate change. More than 50 per cent of GHG emissions originate from the activities of multinational corporations, and oil is responsible for about one quarter of the ‘greenhouse

in Climate change and the oil industry
Open Access (free)
The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

years of Robinson’s and subsequently Mary McAleese’s Presidencies have coincided with a period of unparalleled expansion in 9780719075636_4_001.qxd 16/2/09 9:23 AM Page 7 Changing history 7 the Irish economy, which one investment banker at Morgan Stanley likened to the roaring economic advances in the Asian Pacific by coining the phrase ‘Celtic Tiger’.13 Amongst the most important contributory factors behind the boom was the development of the European Single Market and surge in the US economy. Multinational corporations and investors from Europe and the USA

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Phil Almond

multinationals’, Industrial Relations Journal (forthcoming). Almond, P., Gonzalez, M.C., Gunnigle, P., Lavelle, J, Luque, D., Monaghan, S. and Murray, G. (2014), ‘Multinationals and regional economies: embedding the regime shoppers’, Transfer, 20:2, 237–53. Almond, P. and Rubery, J. (2000), ‘Deregulation and societal systems’, Advances in Organization Studies, 4, 277–94. Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (1996), ‘Subsidiary embeddedness and control in the multinational corporation’, International Business Review, 5:5, 487–508. Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (2002), ‘In search of

in Making work more equal
An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

is considered to have been essential in creating the conditions for the possibility of an economic boom. The enormous cuts in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment that, in time, induced investment by some of the largest and most dynamic multinational corporations in the world. The introduction of formally free schooling in the late 1960s is also often identified as a measure that would ultimately serve to alter the economic fortunes of the Irish Republic.23 It has become a common

in The end of Irish history?
Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

continue their economic 4 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 5 Introduction endeavours. Private companies in ‘peaceful’ states also have a position in these commodity chains, with conflict goods such as diamonds, oil and timber being traded through multinational corporations. The consumption of these otherwise licit goods occurs primarily in ‘peaceful’ developed nations, as does the consumption of illicit goods associated with conflicts, including cocaine and heroin. Private security firms from within the conflict-affected country or from

in Building a peace economy?
Competing imaginaries of science and social order in responsible (research and) innovation
Stevienna de Saille and Paul Martin

, to discuss genetically modified organisms (GMOs), one of the most intractable technological controversies of our time. While those involved in creating GMOs, particularly multinational corporations such as Monsanto, have been characterised as a kind of ‘Monsters Inc.’, likewise the biotechnology sector has sometimes appeared to view the public as a kind of monstrous regiment, an army of dissent intent on thwarting the aspirations of a field that seeks only to improve upon nature to feed the world (Riley-Smith, 2014). We draw the metaphor from the highly successful

in Science and the politics of openness
The case of air quality monitoring in a Spanish industrial area
Miguel A. López-Navarro

role that confrontation and conflict can play (Laasonen et al. 2012). One stream in the literature on business–NGO interaction is concerned with large multinational corporations that operate in multiple locations and generate negative externalities on a global scale (e.g., de Lange et al. 2016). However, a great deal of activism takes place at the local level, particularly on environmental DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 182 08/06/2020 15:32 Legitimating confrontational discourses 183 issues. As Grant and Vasi (2017, 100) point out, “the strong local

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

committed to international obligations. On the other hand, others dispute the validity of the claim that international economic integration or globalisation has produced the ‘global corporation’, which owes allegiance to no state. Rather, they posit that multinational corporations operate within enduring political structures that continue to account for striking differences between them (Doremus et al., 1998; Pauly and Reich, 1997). Multinational corporations are not only under the control of all the states in which they operate, they are also largely controlled by their

in Climate change and the oil industry