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Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

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different rhetoric or are the differences substantial? Why do the strategies of the oil majors vary and change over time, and what conditions trigger such changes? While interesting in their own right, these questions are also important for the prospects of establishing a viable international climate policy. Large multinational oil companies represent significant target groups for mitigating climate change. More than 50 per cent of GHG emissions originate from the activities of multinational corporations, and oil is responsible for about one quarter of the ‘greenhouse

in Climate change and the oil industry
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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990

years of Robinson’s and subsequently Mary McAleese’s Presidencies have coincided with a period of unparalleled expansion in 9780719075636_4_001.qxd 16/2/09 9:23 AM Page 7 Changing history 7 the Irish economy, which one investment banker at Morgan Stanley likened to the roaring economic advances in the Asian Pacific by coining the phrase ‘Celtic Tiger’.13 Amongst the most important contributory factors behind the boom was the development of the European Single Market and surge in the US economy. Multinational corporations and investors from Europe and the USA

in Irish literature since 1990

multinationals’, Industrial Relations Journal (forthcoming). Almond, P., Gonzalez, M.C., Gunnigle, P., Lavelle, J, Luque, D., Monaghan, S. and Murray, G. (2014), ‘Multinationals and regional economies: embedding the regime shoppers’, Transfer, 20:2, 237–53. Almond, P. and Rubery, J. (2000), ‘Deregulation and societal systems’, Advances in Organization Studies, 4, 277–94. Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (1996), ‘Subsidiary embeddedness and control in the multinational corporation’, International Business Review, 5:5, 487–508. Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M. (2002), ‘In search of

in Making work more equal
An introduction to the book

is considered to have been essential in creating the conditions for the possibility of an economic boom. The enormous cuts in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment that, in time, induced investment by some of the largest and most dynamic multinational corporations in the world. The introduction of formally free schooling in the late 1960s is also often identified as a measure that would ultimately serve to alter the economic fortunes of the Irish Republic.23 It has become a common

in The end of Irish history?
Competing imaginaries of science and social order in responsible (research and) innovation

, to discuss genetically modified organisms (GMOs), one of the most intractable technological controversies of our time. While those involved in creating GMOs, particularly multinational corporations such as Monsanto, have been characterised as a kind of ‘Monsters Inc.’, likewise the biotechnology sector has sometimes appeared to view the public as a kind of monstrous regiment, an army of dissent intent on thwarting the aspirations of a field that seeks only to improve upon nature to feed the world (Riley-Smith, 2014). We draw the metaphor from the highly successful

in Science and the politics of openness
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War economies, peace economies and transformation

continue their economic 4 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15:06 Page 5 Introduction endeavours. Private companies in ‘peaceful’ states also have a position in these commodity chains, with conflict goods such as diamonds, oil and timber being traded through multinational corporations. The consumption of these otherwise licit goods occurs primarily in ‘peaceful’ developed nations, as does the consumption of illicit goods associated with conflicts, including cocaine and heroin. Private security firms from within the conflict-affected country or from

in Building a peace economy?
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committed to international obligations. On the other hand, others dispute the validity of the claim that international economic integration or globalisation has produced the ‘global corporation’, which owes allegiance to no state. Rather, they posit that multinational corporations operate within enduring political structures that continue to account for striking differences between them (Doremus et al., 1998; Pauly and Reich, 1997). Multinational corporations are not only under the control of all the states in which they operate, they are also largely controlled by their

in Climate change and the oil industry
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Postcolonial women writers in a transnational frame

issues of belonging that have both national and translocal resonances, on occasion establishing cross-border affiliations as they proceed. With this in mind, it is worth spending a moment looking more closely at feminist postcolonial understandings of the cross-national or translocal. (These terms are less obviously tied to the operations of multinational corporations than is ‘transnational’ although translocal links, too, can be forged through globalising processes of cultural dissemination. ‘International’ of course denotes a crucial Marxist legacy of internationalist

in Stories of women
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strategies. The point of departure for the analysis in this book is the sharp contrast between the important role played by the oil industry and the lack of analytical frameworks within social science climate research for studying corporate actors. Systematic case studies of major companies in other issue areas are also short in supply, even though a wide range of global environmental problems has been linked to the worldwide operations of multinational corporations. In this chapter, we will first recapitulate the analytical framework developed and applied in this analysis

in Climate change and the oil industry