Open Access (free)

All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. Justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. This book explores two approaches to rights: the interest-based (IB) approach, and the obligation-based or Kantian view. Both are shown to offer coherent justifications that can avoid turning all political concerns into a matter of rights. The concept of social justice emerged in both at the start of the twentieth century, and justified institutions for the democratic modification for market outcomes, on utilitarian, maximin or common good grounds. The book explores whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. It discusses national ties and how they are supposed to act as glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. The book also explores the link between the weakening of states and this change in criminal policies, and outlines their implications for individual rights. Theorists have used the idea of social exclusion to advocate an approach to social justice that sees increased labour-market participation as the key to equal to citizenship. The contemporary understandings of the public-private distinction and feminist critiques of these are also examined.

Ciarán O’Kelly

Introduction This chapter is about national ties and how they are supposed to act as a glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. A nation-state, so the story goes, is one where all the people in the state are bound together by ties of national solidarity. The solidarity legitimates the state – it tells the citizens why they are members and why it is right for the state to exist

in Political concepts
Katie Pickles

outpourings of Anglo-Canadian patriotism that she sensed around her. Her intentions were to seek an opportunity to strengthen Canadian national ties as well as imperial connections, her imperialist outlook stemming, in part, from her upbringing in Scotland. Murray had ambitious plans to form an empire-wide Federation of Daughters of the British Empire and Children of the Empire. She would start the organization in

in Female imperialism and national identity
Enver Kisriev

lost their base in the power structures which had collapsed, re-established it in the systems of confidence between personal friends, relatives, co-regionalists and especially among co-ethnics. The national organisations of the respective peoples, emerging and gaining strength and authority in the population, actively opposed the republican authorities, thus forcing the old ruling elite to strengthen vertical intra-national ties. This is why the subsequent political process in Dagestan consisted of the extension of the political elites’ influence on the national

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

-wide environmental management systems is the environmental policy of the companies’ home-base countries (Gleckman, 1995). Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that long-standing national ties affect the way in which companies approach new problems such as climate change. Social demand The key mechanism whereby social demands can affect the actions of governments is the voting power of electorates. In this analysis we transform social demand from being an analytical tool for understanding governmental behaviour to one for understanding corporate behaviour. The key mechanism whereby

in Climate change and the oil industry
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

example, exploited new market opportunities by a variety of means and gained commercially from 2543Chap5 16/7/03 106 9:58 am Page 106 Climate change and the oil industry consumers’ willingness to pay an extra price for clean energy (Eikeland, forthcoming). As argued in chapter 2, there is reason to assume that social demand affects corporate climate strategies differently depending on the companies’ national ties. This is particularly true whenever national imprints overlap with market exposure. ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil are most directly exposed to the

in Climate change and the oil industry
Richard Parrish

distributors, guaranteeing for the distributor, often for a high price, the exclusive right to distribute the tickets within each of the member states. Rather than being one single market for ticket sales in the EU, nationally tied exclusive agreements create fifteen different markets (based on EU15). Very often, only residents of the country in which the exclusive ticket distributor is based can purchase tickets. In effect, therefore, each country is given a ticket quota which the exclusive distributor then sells to the public. The alleged benefit of this system is two

in Sports law and policy in the European Union