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The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland
Author: Sarah Roddy

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Open Access (free)
The clergy and emigration in practice
Sarah Roddy

was last known to have resided, seeking information.41 Where communication was maintained, the priest still had a role. The significance of chain migration from nineteenth-century Ireland can hardly be overstated. Satisfactory accounts of previously departed friends and relatives tended to be the greatest encourager of further migration, and the money they remitted was the most common means of financing it, meaning that one ‘pioneer’ emigrant from a locality might be the means of bringing out several more.42 Clergymen were often vital links in this chain

in Population, providence and empire
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
Sarah Roddy

5 The spiritual empire at home: emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence The idea that mass migration from nineteenth-century Ireland created an Irish ‘empire’ has had enduring appeal. It proved a rare source of pride during depressed periods in independent Ireland, particularly the 1940s and 1950s, and provided the basis of an evocative title for at least one popular version of the Irish diaspora’s story as late as the turn of this century.1 In the latter context especially, ‘Irish empire’ can appear simply a wry play on a far more common and not

in Population, providence and empire
Author: Christina Morin

The gothic novel in Ireland, 1760–1830 offers a compelling account of the development of gothic literature in late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Ireland. Against traditional scholarly understandings of Irish gothic fiction as a largely late-nineteenth century development, this study recovers to view a whole body of Irish literary production too often overlooked today. Its robust examination of primary texts, the contexts in which they were produced, and the critical perspectives from which they have been analysed yields a rigorous account of the largely retrospective formal and generic classifications that have worked to eliminate eighteenth-century and Romantic-era Irish fiction from the history of gothic literature. The works assessed here powerfully demonstrate that what we now understand as typical of ‘the gothic novel’– medieval, Catholic Continental settings; supernatural figures and events; an interest in the assertion of British modernity – is not necessarily what eighteenth- and nineteenth-century readers or writers would have identified as ‘gothic’. They moreover point to the manner in which scholarly focus on the national tale and allied genres has effected an erasure of the continued production and influence of gothic literature in Romantic Ireland. Combining quantitative analysis with meticulous qualitative readings of a selection of representative texts, this book sketches a new formal, generic, and ideological map of gothic literary production in this period. As it does so, it persuasively positions Irish works and authors at the centre of a newly understood paradigm of the development of the literary gothic across Ireland, Britain, and Europe between 1760 and 1830.

Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

all, the country most affected by nineteenth-century Irish emigration was not the United States, where the largest proportion of emigrants went, nor Australia, which had a higher ratio of immigrants from Ireland among its population than from any other country, but Ireland itself, from where all of them ultimately came. This study proposes to improve our understanding of the phenomenon of Irish emigration by concentrating on Ireland rather than its diaspora, and within those parameters to look at a significant and hitherto overlooked aspect of the two

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Christina Morin

the inaccuracy of these ideas, illustrating that Irish authors actively produced an adaptable, cross-generic, cross-cultural gothic literature reflective of contemporary understandings of the term gothic, not as the codified formal or generic heading it has become. Exploring historical example, continuity, and change, the authors of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Irish gothic literature produced a diverse body of fiction that probed questions of modernity, progress, and enlightenment from a variety of different angles. Many of these works adopt the conventions

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
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‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott
Christina Morin

, examples of early nineteenth-century Irish fiction. Horace Walpole, Thomas Leland, and the Gothic past By the time he published Longsword in 1762, Thomas Leland had already established himself as a serious man of letters, editing, with John Stoke, The Philipic Orations of Demosthenes (1754), translating Demosthenes's Orations (1756–60), and publishing A history of the life and reign of Philip, King of Macedon (1758). In this context, Leland's only novel is often presented as generically closer to historiography than fiction

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
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The cartographic consciousness of Irish gothic fiction
Christina Morin

thus invite their readers to view England as characterised by an unsettling violence and irrationality normally linked to the Continent and its superstitious, pre-modern, radicalised cultures. The final section of the chapter charts Irish literary gothic's participation in the new ‘cartographic consciousness’ that emerges in early nineteenth-century Irish fiction as writers explore ‘the different ways in which place can be inscribed in literature’. 16 Connolly argues that the imagined cultural encounters between England and Ireland in the

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Open Access (free)
Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction
Christina Morin

restorative power of travel when combined with an ‘inquisitive mind’ and ‘ardent imagination’. 2 In this, the novel resonates with The old Irish baronet and The tradition of the castle , portraying Delamere and his various movements as the key to a new transnationally inflected Irishness. 3 Roche's novel further reflects on the usefulness of travel in the negotiation of nineteenth-century Irish identities through its exploration of the literary endeavours of its second protagonist, Eugene O’Neil. Presenting

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
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Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction
Christina Morin

‘romance’, ‘novel’, ‘tale’, and ‘history’. 19 The first part of this chapter explores the ongoing debate over these generic borders and classifications, focusing on Irish gothic literature's frequent uncovering of the porousness of boundaries between fact and fiction, novel and romance – an indeterminacy as socially threatening as the overlap of past and present made manifest in Walpole's Otranto and Leland's Longsword . The second part looks more particularly at examples of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Irish gothic fiction that function as

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829