Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman
,
Fernando Espada
, and
Róisín Read

being a humanitarian worker has never been so complex and dangerous. Many humanitarian narratives are fuelled by the fears of organisations: they see their working space reduced under the joint pressure of states increasingly asserting their sovereignty and of more frequent security incidents due to direct targeting, all happening in the context of widespread erosion of international norms ( Shaheen, 2016 ; Bouchet-Saulnier and Whittall, 2019 ; UN Security Council

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Insight from Northeast Nigeria
Chikezirim C. Nwoke
,
Jennifer Becker
,
Sofiya Popovych
,
Mathew Gabriel
, and
Logan Cochrane

, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden, which have more feminist approaches to foreign assistance, require that most assistance sectors, including humanitarian activities, be at the very least gender sensitive ( OECD, 2021 ). This means that interventions must explicitly take into consideration the unique needs, capacities and potential for different impacts on girls, boys, women and men. Gender transformative actions are broad in type, but can be summarised as those that address the root causes and social norms underpinning gender inequalities, which may also include

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot
,
Lisa DiPangrazio
,
Dorcas Acen
,
Veronica Gatpan
, and
Ronald Apunyo

. A multi-country study in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia and Senegal identified how child marriage is influenced by intersections between poverty, lack of educational opportunities and norms that discriminate against girls ( Petroni et al. , 2017 ). In many contexts, marriage is linked to the onset of puberty ( Lal, 2015 ). Lower educational attainment may be a risk factor as well as a consequence of child marriage ( Stark, 2018 ). Child marriage may occur more among communities facing poverty ( Efevbera et al., 2019 ; Stark, 2018 ; UNICEF, 2014 ), communities living

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Gender Norm Change during Displacement?
Michelle Lokot

entering Macedonia and Serbia, as ‘[t]ired, dirty and traumatized… [with] limited or no knowledge of English’ (4). Trauma is positioned as an automatic condition of refugee-ness, and lack of ability to speak English is assumed, irrespective of nationality or education level. In humanitarian analysis, across multiple humanitarian settings, tradition and culture are often judged as negative forces without further explanation. For example, in Bangladesh, ‘traditional social norms

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lisette R. Robles

GBV refugee survivor’s search for help, adapting the social capital framework. This is followed by a discussion on the influence of networks, norms and trust, substantiated by excerpts from the interviews with refugee leaders and service providers. Finally, it reemphasises recognising and investing in the displaced people’s networks for GBV help-seeking. Theorising Social Connections in Displacement and GBV Help-Seeking Conflict magnifies the weakening of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security Crises
Daniel Maxwell
and
Peter Hailey

, frequently, the breakdown of institutions and social norms. Politically, it means a failure of governance – a failure to provide the most basic of protections. Technically, it has come to mean the simultaneous and unambiguous breaching of thresholds for food insecurity, malnutrition and mortality in a given location and time period for a population of at least 10,000 people ( IPC Global Partners, 2019 ). Globally, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of acutely food-insecure people was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé
and
Joanna Kuper

, as Fabrice Weissman has shown ( Weissman, 2016 ), these quantitative studies offer little interpretation of violent incidents other than to say that they demonstrate a lack of respect for international humanitarian norms that require belligerents to protect and facilitate the provision of healthcare to the sick and wounded. They tend to reinforce the assumption, widely held among the aid community, that violence on health facilities and personnel is primarily, if not exclusively

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Encounters in America
Dagmawi Woubshet

This essay draws on James Baldwin’s ideas on race, immigration, and American identity to examine the experience of contemporary African immigrants in the United States. More Africans have come to the U.S. since 1965 than through the Middle Passage, and only now is their experience gaining the full creative and critical attention it merits. Since becoming American entails adopting the racial norms and sentiments of the U.S., I explore how African immigrants contend with the process of racialization that is part and parcel of the American experience. Drawing on Baldwin’s idea of blackness as an ethical category, I also consider the limits of the concept of Afropolitanism to characterize the new wave of African immigrants in the U.S.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action 1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

Introduction Despite increasing attention to gender issues in the humanitarian sector, the notion of gender equality as a humanitarian goal remains largely rejected. Some humanitarians argue that transforming gender relations goes against the humanitarian principles (see Fal-Dutra Santos, 2019 for a critique of this position). This is only part of the argument, which also emphasises the cultural nature of gender norms and the duty to respect

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Phoebe Shambaugh

intervention vary, this collection of articles invites us to consider the importance of local, socially embedded meanings in humanitarianism and the potential difference between local understandings and expert analyses and norms. The first of these empirical articles, by Ara Joy Pacoma, Yvonne Su and Angelie Genotiva, is the output of collaboration with local researchers to explore and address local understandings, conceptions and expressions of resilience among people affected by disaster – in this case Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban, Philippines. This article therefore

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs