James Baldwin, William F. Buckley,
Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate
Daniel Robert McClure
The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley,
Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the
American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the
ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality.
Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents
related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement.
Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the
essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would
address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of
neoliberalism in the 1970s.
The conflict in Kosovo represents a significant watershed in post-Cold War international security. Interpreting its political and operational significance should reveal important clues for understanding international security in the new millennium. This text analyses the international response to the crisis in Kosovo and its broader implications, by examining its diplomatic, military and humanitarian features. Despite the widely held perception that the conflict in Kosovo has implications for international security, unravelling them can be challenging, as it remains an event replete with paradoxes. There are many such paradoxes. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) entered into the conflict ostensibly to head off a humanitarian catastrophe, only to accelerate the catastrophe by engaging in a bombing campaign; the political aims of all the major players contradicted the military means chosen by them in the conflict. The Russian role in the diplomatic efforts demonstrated that NATO did not want Russia to be involved but in the end needed its involvement. Russia opposed the bombing campaign but ultimately did not have enough power or influence to rise above a role as NATO's messenger; the doctrinal hurdles to achieving ‘immaculate coercion’ by use of air power alone seemed to tumble in the face of apparent success; it is ultimately unclear how or why NATO succeeded.
Intimacy, Shame, and the Closet in James Baldwin’s
Monica B. Pearl
This essay’s close interrogation of James Baldwin’s 1956 novel
Giovanni’s Room allows us to see one aspect of how
sexual shame functions: it shows how shame exposes anxiety not only about the
feminizing force of homosexuality, but about how being the object of the gaze is
feminizing—and therefore shameful. It also shows that the paradigm of the
closet is not the metaphor of privacy and enclosure on one hand and openness and
liberation on the other that it is commonly thought to be, but instead is a site
of illusory control over whether one is available to be seen and therefore
humiliated by being feminized. Further, the essay reveals the paradox of denial,
where one must first know the thing that is at the same time being disavowed or
denied. The narrative requirements of fictions such as Giovanni’s
Room demonstrate this, as it requires that the narrator both know,
in order to narrate, and not know something at the same time.
James Baldwin and Melanie Klein in the Context
of Black Lives Matter
David W McIvor
Recent killings of unarmed black citizens are a fresh reminder of the troubled state of
racial integration in the United States. At the same time, the unfolding Black Lives
Matter protest movements and the responses by federal agencies each testify to a not
insignificant capacity for addressing social pathologies surrounding the color line. In
order to respond to this ambivalent situation, this article suggests a pairing between the
work of James Baldwin and that of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein. I will argue that we
cannot fully appreciate the depths of what Baldwin called the “savage paradox” of race
without the insights provided by Klein and object relations psychoanalysis. Conversely,
Baldwin helps us to sound out the political significance of object relations approaches,
including the work of Klein and those influenced by her such as Hanna Segal and Wilfred
Bion. In conversation with the work of Baldwin, object relations theory can help to
identify particular social settings and institutions that might allow concrete efforts
toward racial justice to take root.
‘practical wisdom’ to risk management in humanitarian situations ( Champy, 2018 ). The precursors to these studies
included those of Mark Duffield, who in a seminal article denounced the
‘bunkerisation’ of NGOs ( Duffield,
2010 ) and then, alongside Sarah Collinson and others, the ‘paradoxes
of presence’ ( Collinson et
al ., 2013 ).
However, the exchange of field practices remains limited and the academic and policy
critique of security practices does not seem to have had the impact
prove to be particularly useful to those who are illiterate
and, rather paradoxically, to those who cannot use a mobile phone. Based on her
observation that these interactions are often mediated by technology, Leung convincingly
argues that technology-mediated interactions constitute proof of ‘the haphazard
but functional dynamic of a network of weak ties’ (p. 54). Chapter 6 provides a
compelling explanation of the complexities of how individuals from refugee backgrounds
engage in digital
International Development Studies ’,
in de Jong ,
S. , Icaza ,
R. and Rutazibwa ,
O. U. (eds), Decolonization and
Feminisms in Global Teaching and Learning ( London :
Routledge ), pp.
192 – 214 .
M. ( 2017 ),
Decolonising Intervention: International Statebuilding in Mozambique
( London : Rowman & Littlefield
G. ( 2016 ), White
Innocence: Paradoxes of Colonialism and Race ( Durham,
NC : Duke University Press ).
French press gives the work of these good Samaritans its
automatic blessing, a knee-jerk endorsement that contrasts sharply with some of the
practices of the English-language press, for example. In 2010, the British daily
The Guardian launched a ‘Global Development’
section that, although funded in part by an important player in the field (the Bill
and Melinda Gates Foundation), regularly presents content that is critical. 21
The Paradox of the
many cases destroyed by Russian and Syrian government bombardment, MSF was
at a loss as to how to respond, despite its brilliance in publicity.
An exception to this general rule about political engagement is Palestine, above all for
Western European relief workers. But for so many young people in the EU, Palestine is the great
international cause of their time, and as such, paradoxically, it also becomes a domestic issue
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
literature on staff security points
to the risk of fortification and the use of armed security guards contributing to a
normalisation and, potentially, an escalation of violence ( Collinson and Duffield, 2013 : iv, 19–22).
Furthermore, several authors argue that the increasing resort to hard security
measures and fortified aid compounds has led to the ‘bunkerisation’ of
aid and the paradox that aid agencies gain or maintain access in insecure
environments at the same time as