James Baldwin, William F. Buckley, Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate
Daniel Robert McClure

The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley, Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality. Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement. Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of neoliberalism in the 1970s.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Intimacy, Shame, and the Closet in James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room
Monica B. Pearl

This essay’s close interrogation of James Baldwin’s 1956 novel Giovanni’s Room allows us to see one aspect of how sexual shame functions: it shows how shame exposes anxiety not only about the feminizing force of homosexuality, but about how being the object of the gaze is feminizing—and therefore shameful. It also shows that the paradigm of the closet is not the metaphor of privacy and enclosure on one hand and openness and liberation on the other that it is commonly thought to be, but instead is a site of illusory control over whether one is available to be seen and therefore humiliated by being feminized. Further, the essay reveals the paradox of denial, where one must first know the thing that is at the same time being disavowed or denied. The narrative requirements of fictions such as Giovanni’s Room demonstrate this, as it requires that the narrator both know, in order to narrate, and not know something at the same time.

James Baldwin Review
James Baldwin and Melanie Klein in the Context of Black Lives Matter
David W McIvor

Recent killings of unarmed black citizens are a fresh reminder of the troubled state of racial integration in the United States. At the same time, the unfolding Black Lives Matter protest movements and the responses by federal agencies each testify to a not insignificant capacity for addressing social pathologies surrounding the color line. In order to respond to this ambivalent situation, this article suggests a pairing between the work of James Baldwin and that of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein. I will argue that we cannot fully appreciate the depths of what Baldwin called the “savage paradox” of race without the insights provided by Klein and object relations psychoanalysis. Conversely, Baldwin helps us to sound out the political significance of object relations approaches, including the work of Klein and those influenced by her such as Hanna Segal and Wilfred Bion. In conversation with the work of Baldwin, object relations theory can help to identify particular social settings and institutions that might allow concrete efforts toward racial justice to take root.

James Baldwin Review
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

‘practical wisdom’ to risk management in humanitarian situations ( Champy, 2018 ). The precursors to these studies included those of Mark Duffield, who in a seminal article denounced the ‘bunkerisation’ of NGOs ( Duffield, 2010 ) and then, alongside Sarah Collinson and others, the ‘paradoxes of presence’ ( Collinson et al ., 2013 ). However, the exchange of field practices remains limited and the academic and policy critique of security practices does not seem to have had the impact

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

prove to be particularly useful to those who are illiterate and, rather paradoxically, to those who cannot use a mobile phone. Based on her observation that these interactions are often mediated by technology, Leung convincingly argues that technology-mediated interactions constitute proof of ‘the haphazard but functional dynamic of a network of weak ties’ (p. 54). Chapter 6 provides a compelling explanation of the complexities of how individuals from refugee backgrounds engage in digital

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

International Development Studies ’, in de Jong , S. , Icaza , R. and Rutazibwa , O. U. (eds), Decolonization and Feminisms in Global Teaching and Learning ( London : Routledge ), pp. 192 – 214 . Sabaratnam , M. ( 2017 ), Decolonising Intervention: International Statebuilding in Mozambique ( London : Rowman & Littlefield International ). Wekker , G. ( 2016 ), White Innocence: Paradoxes of Colonialism and Race ( Durham, NC : Duke University Press ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

French press gives the work of these good Samaritans its automatic blessing, a knee-jerk endorsement that contrasts sharply with some of the practices of the English-language press, for example. In 2010, the British daily The Guardian launched a ‘Global Development’ section that, although funded in part by an important player in the field (the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation), regularly presents content that is critical. 21 The Paradox of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

many cases destroyed by Russian and Syrian government bombardment, MSF was at a loss as to how to respond, despite its brilliance in publicity. 5 An exception to this general rule about political engagement is Palestine, above all for Western European relief workers. But for so many young people in the EU, Palestine is the great international cause of their time, and as such, paradoxically, it also becomes a domestic issue for them.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

literature on staff security points to the risk of fortification and the use of armed security guards contributing to a normalisation and, potentially, an escalation of violence ( Collinson and Duffield, 2013 : iv, 19–22). Furthermore, several authors argue that the increasing resort to hard security measures and fortified aid compounds has led to the ‘bunkerisation’ of aid and the paradox that aid agencies gain or maintain access in insecure environments at the same time as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

Paradoxes of Aid Work: Passionate Professionals ( Abingdon and New York : Routledge ). Rumbach , J. and Knight , K. ( 2014 ), ‘ Sexual and Gender Minorities in Humanitarian Emergencies ’, in Roeder , L. W. (ed.), Issues of Gender and Sexual Orientation in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs