This book examines the payment systems operating in British hospitals before the National Health Service (NHS). An overview of the British situation is given, locating the hospitals within both the domestic social and political context, before taking a wider international view. The book sets up the city of Bristol as a case study to explore the operation and meaning of hospital payments on the ground. The foundation of Bristol's historic wealth, and consequent philanthropic dynamism, was trade. The historic prominence of philanthropic associations in Bristol was acknowledged in a Ministry of Health report on the city in the 1930s. The distinctions in payment served to reinforce the differential class relations at the core of philanthropy. The act of payment heightens and diminishes the significance of 1948 as a watershed in the history of British healthcare. The book places the hospitals firmly within the local networks of care, charity and public services, shaped by the economics and politics of a wealthy southern city. It reflects the distinction drawn between and separation of working-class and middle-class patients as a defining characteristic of the system that emerged over the early twentieth century. The rhetorical and political strategies adopted by advocates of private provision were based on the premise that middle-class patients needed to be brought in to a revised notion of the sick poor. The book examines why the voluntary sector and wider mixed economies of healthcare, welfare and public services should be so well developed in Bristol.

Swati Mehta Dhawan
Julie Zollmann

, sought to shift their food distributions towards digital cash payments in Kenya’s refugee camps. However, the Government forbid payments to refugees over mainstream M-Pesa accounts, forcing the organisation to invest in a separate closed-loop voucher system, not unlike the closed, cash out-only distributions in Jordan. While it operates via Safaricom and ostensibly on M-Pesa infrastructure, the voucher system shows little resemblance to the payments

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Atul Bhardwaj

World Shipping Traffic ’, National Geographic (27 November 2014 ), , accessed 13 April 2019. 36 Aljazeera, ‘EU and Iran Agree on New Payment System to Skirt US Sanctions’ (25 September 2018), , accessed 25 April 2019. 37 A. W. McCoy , In the Shadows of the American Century: The Rise and Decline of US Global Power ( London : Oneworld Publications , 2017

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Open Access (free)
George Campbell Gosling

to consider charging for some services. 8 What might those considerations be based upon? Fragmentation of NHS service provision has made it significantly harder for the government (or anyone else) to gather information about the situation on the ground, which leaves abstract theory or international comparison as the only options available – unless we look to the past. This book does just that by examining the payment systems operating in British hospitals

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Oonagh McDonald

nation's payments system or deposits insured by the FDIC. BHCs are regulated by the Federal Reserve, whereas most banks and almost all the large ones are regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. State chartered banks are regulated by their home state regulators and the FDIC at the federal level. The GLBA expressly authorizes the broker-dealer subsidiaries of an FHC to underwrite and deal in all types of securities, including corporate debt and equity securities, without limit as to the amount of revenue the

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
George Campbell Gosling

municipal hospitals It is easy to cast interwar municipal hospitals as forerunners of the National Health Service, providing tax-funded medical services to the whole community and making important strides towards a more integrated and co-ordinated hospital system. 44 Not always, however, services free at the point of use. A similar payment system to that of the voluntary hospitals was also to be found at Bristol's municipal Southmead Hospital. An

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Phil Williams

electronic payments systems could overwhelm the existing safeguards. Getting even has never been so feasible or easy. The eighth characteristic of the twenty-first-century security paradigm relates to the paradoxical and perverse consequences of globalisation. Although globalisation has been widely hailed as facilitating the spread of liberal democratic values and free market economics, it has both a downside and a dark side that liberal neo-institutionalists were slow to acknowledge. Legitimate businesses have benefited enormously from opportunities to exploit global

in Limiting institutions?
Mørten Bøås
Bård Drange
Dlawer Ala'Aldeen
Abdoul Wahab Cissé
, and
Qayoom Suroush

goals for what it wanted to do. More than based on strategic objectives, its actions depended on what member states could provide of funding and personnel ( Fescharek, 2015 ). Moreover, to point to technical problems – like payment systems – rather than how departments were running, and underlying issues of corrupt and partly criminal departments (as these issues) is considered too ‘complicated and

in The EU and crisis response
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

undertaken was done only in 2011 for voting purposes.4 Even the biometric census completed in 2015 for the military and its new phone-payment system do not change the fact that governance practices do not rely on turning the Congolese into consuming and working taxpayers (EEAS 2015; UNDP 2010). There is a deeper question of the feasibility and ethics of offering an intelligible reading of the forms of social and political imagination in contemporary Africa solely through conceptual structures and fictional representations used precisely to deny African societies any

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Privacy, liability and interception
Christopher T. Marsden

]: general internet search engines (e.g. Google, Bing), specialised search tools (e.g. Google Shopping, Kelkoo, Twenga, Google Local, TripAdvisor, Yelp), location-based business directories or some maps (e.g. Google or Bing Maps), news aggregators (e.g. Google News), online market places (e.g. Amazon, eBay, Allegro,, audio-visual and music platforms (e.g. Deezer, Spotify, NetFlix, Canal play, Apple TV), video sharing platforms (e.g. YouTube, Dailymotion), payment

in Network neutrality