Open Access (free)
Practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century
Philippe Rogger

6 Pensions in Switzerland: practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century Philippe Rogger The development of Swiss power politics around 1500 was remarkable, albeit short-lived. During the Burgundian Wars (1474–1477), Swiss cantons under Bernese leadership skilfully exploited the anti-Burgundian constellation on the European stage to expand their sphere of influence westwards, while in the Milanese Wars (1494–1516) they extended their territory to the south, into Lombardy.1 Victory over Burgundy in the Battles of Murten (1476), Grandson (1476), and

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

UNRWA on their mobile phones and/or laptops; all quotes from the circulars are taken verbatim from the documents on file with the author. In undertaking this close reading of the documents, I trace the nature and implications of a series of UNRWA’s more ‘private’ responses to the 2018 cuts, with a particular focus on shifts in educational and maternal and neonatal health services on the one hand and employment and pension rights on the other. I thus illustrate the extent to which UNRWA’s operational changes are invisible on the international

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Economies of allegiance

French subsidies played a central role in European politics from Charles VIII’s invasion of Italy in 1494 until the French Revolution. French kings attempted to frustrate what they viewed as a Habsburg bid to pursue universal monarchy. During the seventeenth century, the French monarchy would embrace the payment of subsidies on a different scale than previously, using alliances in which subsidies played a prominent role to pursue crucial aspects of royal policy. Louis XIII made alliances promising subsidies to support the United Provinces’ resumed war against the king of Spain, and for the Danish, Swedish, and various German princes to fight against the Holy Roman Emperor. Louis XIV continued some of these subsidies and used subsidies as a tool in order to implement his own politics. When Louis XIV appeared to Dutch and some English statesmen as aspiring to Universal monarchy, the Dutch and particularly the English used the tool of subsidies to frustrate the French monarch. During the eighteenth century, principally the French and the British, but also the Austrians, used subsidies to procure allies and attempt to maintain the balance of power. The subsidy system prompted significant debates about the legal, political, and moral implications, and was sometimes a source of political conflict between competing power groupings within states. The book argues that participation in the French system of subsidies neither necessarily accelerated nor necessarily retarded state development; but such participation could undoubtedly change political dynamics, the creation of institutions, and the form of states that would emerge.

Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

, have also shed their former social-democratic responsibilities ( Boltanski and Chiapello, 2005 ). Jobs for life, intergenerational career structures, apprenticeships, subsidised canteens, social clubs, sports facilities and company pensions have disappeared. In the mid twentieth century, for the white working class at least, welfarism together with a Fordist employment culture provided a high degree of protection against market forces. Indeed, this was a defining political feature of the West’s racial- and gender-inflected Cold War social

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

professionals, not well-meaning amateurs – careers with status, credentials, salaries and pensions. Third is the endless supply of those who would wish to make a difference, whose sense of what they are getting themselves into is misconceived from the start. Overall, humanitarianism and human rights create a legitimacy for the current global dispensation, a way to respond to difficult questions and feelings about the casualties of world order, a way to feel righteous and hopeful despite the reality, a way to preserve the illusion that we are making

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Peter Dorey

Dorey over general policy direction, and shifts and U-turns concerning a number of specific polices. This chapter will examine Conservative policies in seven main areas: the economy, ‘tax and spend’ (including public services), law and order, the family and sexual politics, welfare reform and pensions, asylum seekers, and rural affairs. The vital and vexatious issue of Europe is addressed in Chapter 8. The economy Throughout most of the 1980s successful stewardship of the economy had been the Conservative Party’s trump card, and one which was played with devastating

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
A Party of the 99% and the Power of Debt
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

publicly run banking system can provide for this debt-free, with no premiums required. In other words, everyone is covered by virtue of being a member of the political community. Seventh, a Party of the 99% should fund retirement at a democratically agreed-upon age. Presently, because of the economic insecurity wrought by the 2008 financial crisis and the defunding of pension plans by governments and municipalities bankrupted by debt, retirement is out of reach for many. Consequently, the elderly are forced to continue working longer (see Table 5.1). While many may be

in Debt as Power
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

in 1942. It proposed a comprehensive state system where all would contribute to services and benefits which would be available to everyone according to need. Benefits would be available to all critical stages of life. Social security ● ● ● ● ● ● 67 maternity grants upon the birth of a child; family allowances – a weekly payment to be made for each child in a family; unemployment benefit; widow’s benefit; pensions for men over 65 and women over 60; death grant for the family of the deceased. This was indeed a comprehensive system, far more than had been seen

in Understanding British and European political issues
Lars Norén and Agneta Ranerup

arguments among politicians. Citizens were given opportunities to make choices within education, healthcare, and pensions; but as soon as such opportunities were introduced, they were criticized. Typical arguments against choice were that people could not choose because of information asymmetry (Greener, 2007), or that people did not want to choose (Clarke, 2007). Ordinary citizens faced problems with this new overflow of choices. From the late 1990s onward, most politicians decided that one way of dealing with that critique was to launch web-based guides designed to

in Overwhelmed by overflows?

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.