Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

, www.refugee-economies.org/assets/downloads/Principles_for_Ethical_Humanitarian_Innovation_-_final_paper.pdf (accessed 25 November 2019) . White , B. T. ( 2019 ), ‘ Refuge and History. A Critical Reading of a Polemic’ , Migration and Society: Advances in Research , 2 , 107 – 18 , doi: 10.3167/arms.2019.020111 .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Essays on Modern American Literature
Author: David Herd

Modern American literature began with a statement of enthusiasm from Emerson's writing in Nature. 'Enthusiasm', in Emerson, is a knowing word. Sometimes its use is as description, invariably approving, of a historic form of religious experience. Socrates' meaning of enthusiasm, and the image of the enthusiast it throws up, is crucial to this book. The book is a portrait of the writer as an enthusiast, where the portrait, as will become clear, carries more than a hint of polemic. It is about the transmission of literature, showing various writers taking responsibility for that transmission, whether within in their writing or in their cultural activism. Henry David Thoreau's Walden is an enthusiastic book. It is where enthusiasm works both in Immanuel Kant's sense of the unbridled self, and in William Penn's sense of the 'nearer' testament, and in Thoreau's own sense of supernatural serenity. Establishing Ezra Pound's enthusiasm is a fraught and complicated business. Marianne Moore composed poems patiently, sometimes over several years. She is a poet of things, as isolated things - jewels, curios, familiar and exotic animals, common and rare species of plant - are often the ostensible subjects of her poems. Homage to Frank O'Hara is a necessary book, because the sum of his aesthetic was to be found not just in his writing, but also in his actions to which only friends and contemporaries could testify. An enthusiastic reading of James Schuyler brings to the fore pleasure, the sheer pleasure that can come of combining, or mouthing, or transcribing.

Simha Goldin

Jesus’ coming, that the Torah has been abrogated by the coming of Jesus, and that God was no longer interested in the repentance of the Jews.11 Sefer Nizzahon Vetus, or the ‘Old Book of Polemic,’ is an anthology of attacks on Christian belief and its principles or, as its subtitle has it, ‘A critique of the Gospels and Christianity.’ The book is organized according to the order of chapters of the Hebrew Bible and includes most of the books of the Bible as well as extensive reference to the New Testament. It was written at the end of the thirteenth century, and based

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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Competing claims to national identity
Alex J. Bellamy

’ in nationalism studies is therefore reproduced in studies about Croatia. Attempts to understand Croatian national identity have tended to articulate both modernism and primordialism in their most polemic forms. Those who consider Croatian national identity from a modernist perspective reproduce that approach in its most instrumental form. For example, David Campbell suggested that we should treat issues of nationalism and national MUP_Bellamy_08_Ch7 171 9/3/03, 9:38 T   C   172 identity ‘as questions of history violently

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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A short essay on enthusia
David Herd

as an enthusiast, where the portrait, as will become clear, carries more than a hint of polemic. To sketch in the implications of the critical idea, the history of American literature is barely thinkable without its enthusiasts. There are numerous other writers it would have been appropriate to discuss here, numerous other writers who, for varying reasons, might have been named enthusiasts: Whitman, obviously, Charles Olson, Allen Ginsberg, Robert Creeley, Denise Levertov, Charles Bernstein, Susan Howe, Adrienne Rich. One object in choosing to discuss the figures I

in Enthusiast!
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Postcolonial women writers in a transnational frame
Elleke Boehmer

eponymous voice of the spirit-medium of the 1890s land wars or chimurenga, and Under the Tongue (1996) is the deeply internalised narrative of a victim of incest. Butterfly Burning (1998), also strongly spatialised, was discussed in chapter 10. Thereafter, shifting away from the topic of Arundhati Roy’s reception in the west, which was the focus of chapter 9, I will offer an intertextual commentary on her first and to date only novel The God of Small Things and of her non-fictional polemic against transnationalism. Large nations, small gods Many recent commentaries have noted

in Stories of women
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Theatre and the politics of engagement
Author: Simon Parry

This book is about science in theatre and performance. It explores how theatre and performance engage with emerging scientific themes from artificial intelligence to genetics and climate change. The book covers a wide range of performance forms from the spectacle of the Paralympics Opening Ceremony to Broadway musicals, from experimental contemporary performance and opera to educational theatre, Somali poetic drama and grime videos. It features work by pioneering companies including Gob Squad, Headlong Theatre and Theatre of Debate as well as offering fresh analysis of global blockbusters such as Wicked and Urinetown. The book offers detailed description and analysis of theatre and performance practices as well as broader commentary on the politics of theatre as public engagement with science. It documents important examples of collaborative practice with extended discussion of the Theatre of Debate process developed by Y Touring theatre company, exploration of bilingual theatre-making in East London and an account of how grime MCs and dermatologists ended up making a film together in Birmingham. The interdisciplinary approach draws on contemporary research in theatre and performance studies in combination with key ideas from science studies. It shows how theatre can offer important perspectives on what the philosopher of science Isabelle Stengers has called ‘cosmopolitics’. The book argues that theatre can flatten knowledge hierarchies and hold together different ways of knowing.

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Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

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Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition
S.J. Barnett

thought. It emerged, however, not against the ‘tyranny’of authoritarian rulers, but rather against the old regime in the form of what was understood as the antichristian medieval theocracy of the Papal States and the despotic rule of the popes over their European Church empire. Much of the politico-religious polemic of those decades, as in the French and English experience, was, in the general sense, hardly novel. In this sense the polemic was traditional, but not at all the result of any tradition which finally, as in Gay’s view, regained its ‘nerve’,5 but rather the

in The Enlightenment and religion
S.J. Barnett

exploited by forms of rationalism, naturalism and religious skepticism’.9 Unfortunately, we are left to guess as to how to interpret the phrase ‘cleared the way’. In sum, within elite debate, Kors and others have detected Christian ideas and positions which could, potentially, be turned against Christianity. Indeed, according to Kors, refutations of God (as hypothetical positions in orthodox writings) abounded by the late seventeenth century because of the theological polemic on the issue of the proper philosophical structure for Christian doctrine.10 We may perhaps

in The Enlightenment and religion