, the liberal
parties emerged as the largest ‘political family’ for the first
time since 1883. For the first time since the 1920s, the christian and
socialist families no longer held a combined majority in Parliament. The
Green family gained ground while the far right family’s standing was
eroded overall. New parties demanding a complete overhaul of the politicalsystem failed to gain a seat in the federal Parliament
order goes much deeper than this core
liberal principle about the equal worth of all human lives. Liberal space is constitutive of the
international politicalsystem as a whole. Consider the second Red Cross principle,
‘neutrality’: ‘In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the
Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a
political, racial, religious or ideological nature’ ( ICRC, 2016 ). This liberal space exists above and beyond
political space, a space where, regardless of one
need of an urgent operation. Another problem was that
the region’s medical authorities had diverted some of the drugs brought
by MSF to the military hospital. This was causing stock-outs and obliging
patients to buy drugs from private pharmacies that they should have been
receiving free-of-charge from MSF at the hospital.
The PoliticalSystem in North-East Syria
It took an in-depth investigation (different visits
This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing, examining the constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links together the questions of democracy and legitimacy, competences and rights, and the prospects for European polity-building. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the emerging European polity and the questions that further treaty reform generates for the future of the regional system. The authors also assess the evolving European security architecture; the limits and possibilities of a genuine European foreign, security and defence policy; and the role of the EU in the post-Cold War international system. Common themes involve debates about stability and instability, continuity and change, multipolarity and leadership, co-operation and discord, power capabilities and patterns of behaviour. The book traces the defining features of the ‘new order’ in Europe and incorporates an analysis of the post-September 11th context.
This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.
This book provides an introduction to how the Länder (the sixteen states of Germany) function, not only within the country itself, but also within the wider context of Europe's political affairs. It looks at the Länder in the constitutional order of the country, as well as their political and administrative systems, and also discusses their organisation and administration, together with their financial administration. Finally, the book looks at the role of political parties and elections in the Länder, and considers the importance of their parliaments.
King would, with the naive idea of
cleansing the politicalsystem, assert the Crown’s power of appointing ministers, a right so lapsed that many Parliamentarians were to
regard it as improper; but that he formulated the logical conclusion
that Bute himself must be his political saviour. That had not been the
intention of Bute, a man more suited to scholarship than to politics.
But, hoist with his own petard, he was willing to forsake a quiet
private life to become Prime Minister, a task he performed conscientiously and creditably, but quit within a year.
despotic, that does
not proclaim its devotion to ‘democracy’. Along with ‘God,
Queen and country’ (in Britain), or ‘mom and apple pie’
(in the USA), ‘democracy’ is now associated with something good
and wholesome, something worth defending and, if necessary, dying (and
One can see that there is a problem
with the term ‘democracy’. If every politicalsystem is a
THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE 223
The National Commission for Women:
the Indian experience
shirin m. rai
In this chapter I will examine the brief history of the
National Commission for Women in India that was set up
in 1990. First, I will provide a background to the politicalsystem within which the Commission functions. I will then
examine the structure and functions of the Commission
itself. I will point to the strengths and weaknesses of the
Commission in the context of the politics of the country,
as well as the parameters within which it functions
authoritarian rule across the
Middle East has led to the establishment of what Nazih Ayubi has termed ‘fierce states’,
echoing Friedrich Nietzsche’s definition of the state as ‘the coldest monster’.
This chapter looks at the way in which a range of political structures –formal
and informal –have been created in pursuit of regime survival. Although typically
viewed as the security mechanisms of a state, coercive capabilities are also embedded
within the regulatory mechanisms of politicalsystems and the ability to create bare
life, underpinned by claims to legitimacy. In