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David Rieff

organisations have claimed to be apolitical, hiding their ideology in the structures of the global system. But in making this claim, all they have really said is that their politics are those of liberal internationalism, whether in its American imperial form or its somewhat more egalitarian European iteration. And the great genius of liberalism is that it is the only political ideology in the history of the world that insists that it is not an ideology at all. But the politics of relief organisations has often been exposed, as in the 1980s when many

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The evolution of Labour’s foreign policy, 1900–51

This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.

A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: and

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.

A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

it. This is not to ignore the assumption lying behind it, namely that Islam replaces communism as the ‘enemy’ of the West. But this assumption needs to be treated with great caution. At issue here is a fact-based distinction between the religion of Islam and the political ideology of Islamism ( Tibi, 1998a ). That ideology refers selectively to the religion of Islam and then engages itself in

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

justice. From this perspective, politics may be regarded as a branch of ethics – the study of what is right. Focusing on morality in politics has been a feature of political ideologies, government decisions and party campaigners to the present day. Discourse on ‘ends’ or values, and the morality (not just practicality) of ‘means’ is a fundamental dimension of politics and is inherent in its very meaning

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

that group. 1 In other words, holders of beliefs do not need to have had them ‘proved’ by some rational, scientific form of testing. To the believers they are the ‘truth’, the ‘reality’. All political ideologies claim ‘true’ definitions of liberty, equality, justice, rights and the ‘best’ society. The ‘particular group’ mentioned above might be any

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

, 1983 ) Nationalism has proved to be one of the most powerful of all political ideologies over the last two centuries and seems likely to remain a potent force well into the present century. Often presented as an ancient, even primal, political ideology, nationalism in the modern sense of the word is arguably a creation of the nineteenth century. As the word itself suggests, it is

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

of liberal capitalism in most countries, some liberals were moved to declare that liberalism and liberal values were now the only future for mankind’s development. However, although liberalism has in many ways been the defining political ideology of the Western world for nearly three centuries, this very ubiquity makes it difficult to separate out from Western culture a distinctive ‘liberal’ identity. Many

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

Political Ideologies (Pinter, 1993), pp. 192–215. Bryson, V. Women in British Politics (Huddersfield Pamphlets in History and Politics, 1994). Goodwin, B. ‘Feminism’, in B. Goodwin, Using Political Ideas (John Wiley and Sons, 2001), pp. 189–221. Heywood, A. ‘Feminism’, in A. Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (Macmillan, 1998), pp. 238

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
and
Tony Boyd

Berki, R. N. Modern Ideology: SOCIALISM (J. M. Dent, 1975). Callaghan, J. Socialism in Britain since 1884 (Blackwell, 1990). Geoghegan, V. ‘Socialism’, in R. Eccleshall et al. , Political Ideologies: An introduction (Routledge, 1994), pp. 91–117. Goodwin, B. ‘Socialism’, in B. Goodwin, Using Political Ideas (John Wiley and Sons, 2001), pp. 97

in Understanding political ideas and movements