Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

6 Air pollution control Norilsk Nickel is one of Russia’s leading producers of non-ferrous and platinum-group metals and the country’s largest air polluter. Three of the company’s six subsidiaries are located on the Kola Peninsula: the Pechenganickel Combine at Zapolyarnyy and Nikel,1 the Severonickel Combine at Monchegorsk and the Olenegorsk Mechanical Plant at Olenegorsk. Pechenganickel and Severonickel emit large quantities of sulphur dioxide (SO2) which causes considerable acid precipitation both on the Kola Peninsula and in the neighbouring Fenno

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
The “Clean City” law in São Paulo, Brazil
Marina Da Silva

7 Making sense of visual pollution: The “Clean City” law in São Paulo, Brazil Marina Da Silva Introduction The impact of human activity on the Earth has been a central environmental concern throughout contemporary history. One of the main challenges of the Anthropocene (Crutzen and Stoermer 2000) is to reverse the damage we are doing to the planet through climate change and industrial pollution (National Research Council 2012). The focus of this chapter is on a perhaps less known type of ­harm – ­visual pollution. Unlike other forms of sensory pollution, such as

in Toxic truths
Constructing environmental (in)justice
Anneleen Kenis

13 Science, citizens, and air pollution: Constructing environmental (in)justice Anneleen Kenis Introduction In their efforts to put air pollution on the public agenda, citizens cannot avoid engaging with science. Being a largely invisible socio-­natural artifact, air has to be translated into a subject of contestation and debate for it to become politically salient. Which choices do citizen movements make during this process and what effect do these choices have on particular constructions of environmental (in)justice? To formulate an answer to these questions

in Toxic truths
Norbert Steinhaus

17 Pollution levels in local lakes in Denmark Norbert Steinhaus Context The Danish Society for the Conservation of Nature (DN) of Frederikssund is a local committee of a national NGO working towards protecting nature and the environment. DN Frederikssund addresses local issues regarding the protection of nature and the environment to achieve local sustainable development. It initiates local campaigns, participates in political hearings and comments on the municipality’s environmental strategies and plans. In the mid-1990s, DN Frederikssund became aware of

in Knowledge, democracy and action

This book is a systematic study that considers how international environmental agreements are transformed into political action in Russia, using three case studies on the implementation process in the fields of fisheries management, nuclear safety, and air pollution control. It develops the social science debate on international environmental regimes and ‘implementing activities’ at both national and international level to include regional considerations.

Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

growing environmental stress, natural disasters and climate-change impacts ( IFRC, 2018 ; IPBES 2019 ; Myers et al. , 2017 ; Whitmee et al. , 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2016 ) estimated that exposure to ‘unhealthy environments’ caused 12.6 million deaths in 2012, with South East Asia and Western Pacific bearing the highest burden, of 7.3 million deaths. In 2015, exposure to environmental pollution was responsible for 16 per cent of deaths worldwide

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

and aid agencies into situations of civil war or possible mass atrocity. Presidents Assad and Putin have tested this norm and found they can break it with impunity. Indeed, it seems clear now that both will be key players in any long-term solution to the conflict in Syria. They have, in effect, begun the process of creating a new norm: you can regain legitimacy if you have major power protection and you win . There are other major changes in the issues that affect the international system – industrial and energy pollution and its environmental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

environment were in a dire state when the Union was dissolved in 1991. Several of these problems, in particular air pollution and the danger of nuclear radiation, are of a transboundary character and of such gravity that they pose serious threats to the outside world.6 Moreover, post-Soviet Russian politics have more than anything been characterised by chaos and unpredictability; all the more interesting is it then to see whether relatively stable policy patterns can be found across various cases in Russian environmental politics. Finally, although there has been a certain

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Pollution, contamination and the neglected dead in post-war Saigon
Christophe Robert

4 Dead zone: pollution, contamination and the neglected dead in post-war Saigon Christophe Robert Thresholds and water margins: Binh Hung Hoa cemeteries The entrance gates of the Binh Hung Hoa cemeteries are falling apart. The faded, mouldy yellow paint peels off. Some of the gates date back from the time of the American War. One of them displays a date, 1964, the year President Johnson decided to escalate the war in Vietnam. These are the largest cemeteries in Saigon/Ho Chi Minh City, located in one of the poorest areas in the city. The cemeteries are full and

in Governing the dead