Editors: Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.

Problems of polysemy and idealism
Andrew Sayer

2 Markets, embeddedness and trust: problems of polysemy and idealism Andrew Sayer Introduction In this paper I develop a critique of certain approaches to markets and firm behaviour in economics and economic sociology. There are two main targets of the critique. The first concerns some common approaches to markets and the nature of firms in relation to them. Here I argue that the diverse uses of the term ‘market’ in contemporary lay and academic discourse cause confusion. Also problematic in both mainstream and institutional economics is the tendency to treat

in Market relations and the competitive process
medical pluralism and the search for hegemony
Enrique Perdiguero

concept of the mal donat , while begizkoa was used in the Basque Country and mal de ollo in Galicia, where considerable polysemy (multiple meanings) exists. 70 The social relevance of the evil eye in the period is well attested to in a survey conducted on birth, pregnancy and death by the section of Moral and Political Sciences of Madrid’s Ateneo in 1901–2. 71 Using the materials collected, not all

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)
Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic
Laura Chrisman

-accentuality and polysemy of black languages. For example, in black American ghetto speech the word work can mean dancing, labour, sexual activity or any nuanced combination of all three’ (p. 203). The fact that the word ‘work’ can denote, equally, ‘labour’, ‘dancing’ and ‘sexual activity’ suggests that, far from an opposition, there is a strong affinity among all the activities. What needs conceptualisation is how and why such a fluid linguistic interchangeability between the spheres can occur. And that requires a methodology that can allow for dialectical and dialogical

in Postcolonial contraventions
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji

is Yama, he is the controller, he is the father of his subjects’. 45 The chapter makes no attempt to reconcile these two positions. Both definitions, along with others, are equally valid. This polysemy allows both substantive and deific meanings of vayu to co-exist. It is both a specific ‘moribific entity’, to use a term coined by Sanskritist G. Jan Meulenbeld, as well as a deity. It was this polysemy and the agentive/deified set of meanings that Maitreya was deploying when, to Ray's mild vexation, he insisted

in Progress and pathology
Future Earth, co-production and the experimental life of a global institution
Eleanor Hadley Kershaw

the hybrid network 129 Nerlich, B., and Clarke, D. D. (2001). Ambiguities we live by: Towards a pragmatics of polysemy. Journal of Pragmatics, 33(1), 1–20. Padma, T. V. (2014). Future Earth’s ‘global’ secretariat under fire. SciDevNet, 23 July. Retrieved 31 May 2016 from: www.scidev.net/global/sustainability/ news/future-earth-global-secretariat.html. Pallett, H., and Chilvers, J. (2015). Organizations in the making: Learning and intervening at the science–policy interface. Progress in Human Geography, 39(2), 146–166. Pohl, C., Rist, S., Zimmermann, A., Fry, P

in Science and the politics of openness
Animal language and the return of loss in Beowulf
Mo Pareles

mutually intelligible dialects? What else might they talk about over a meal of our flesh? Despite its potential polysemy, wið in Beowulf usually indicates an adversarial relationship (see lines 113, 144, 152, inter alia ). 42 Yet even in the context of warfare or strife it can still take a cooperative meaning; for example, ‘[Grendel] sibbe ne wolde / wið manna hwone mægenes Deniga’ ([Grendel] would never make peace with any of the Danes) (154b–5), where it aids a negative reference to peace that

in Dating Beowulf
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

Movement. By 1951, Jennings had forged one of the most sophisticated approaches to cinematographic ‘polysemy’ and ‘iconographic displacement’ in the documentary film mode. 32 The Good Life shares a common aesthetic trait with the majority of the MP films about Greece: the referencing of the country’s ancient heritage, intertwined with the contemporaneous geopolitical landscape. But The Good Life

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Gender and nationalism in the early fiction of Flora Nwapa
Elleke Boehmer

’s expression in particular, Kristeva maintains that language – the symbolic order, syntactic completion – is threatened by the irruption of the heterogeneous, the disorderly, the semiotic, that which lies outside language though is finally only conceivable within it. Such irruption, which for Kristeva constitutes the poetic, comes about, among other methods, through a process aptly demonstrated by Flora Nwapa, that is, ‘transposition’, the shift between literary and linguistic media that creates possibilities for polysemy. Through writing, through claiming a text – and a

in Stories of women
How African-Americans shape their collective identity through consumption
Virág Molnár and Michèle Lamont

elements of poverty, street knowledge and unfocused political anger’ (George, 1992). Their elaborately designed sneakers, gold chains, inverted baseball caps, and rap music, or the survivalist look (classic hunting coat over baggy khakis and Timberland boots, camouflage fatigues and thermal half-face masks) ‘taps into a post-Vietnam understanding of the urban terrain as a daily guerrilla war’ (Cardwell, 1993, p. 5; see also Moore, 1993). The attire literally mobilises the polysemy of consumer goods to wage what Umberto Eco called a ‘semiotic guerrilla war’.15 A variant

in Innovation by demand