Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso

The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

health spend. Furthermore, the interrelationship of the barriers identified by DfID is noteworthy. For example, in LMICs the common dual barriers of inadequate sustainable resources and the scale of social determinants such as poverty and inequality result in multiple obstacles, such as ‘lack of … health care and services and skilled workforce’ and ‘data and information’; ‘poor quality of limited services’; and ‘poor integration of physical and mental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

has also lost its meaning. Disasters are developmental; so development has been set the task of re-wilding a post-social world. Within the economic logic of precarity, however, the global South has a special place. Able to utilise the relatively unregulated conditions existing there ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ), rather than eradicating poverty, the role of humanitarian innovation is to experiment, trial and anticipate the means to govern an emerging global precariat ( Jacobsen, 2015 ). In particular, the challenge is to sustain precarity in the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Róisín Read

, R. and Peyton , N. ( 2020 ), ‘ Power, Poverty, and Aid: The Mix that Fuelled Sex Abuse Claims in Congo ’, The New Humanitarian , 29 September, www.thenewhumanitarian.org/analysis/2020/09/29/Power-poverty-aid-sex-abuse-claims-Congo-Ebola-response (accessed 16 November 2020 ). Holvikivi

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

, 2011 ). Such economic strategies of empowerment have been identified as hallmarks of neoliberal development cloaked under a feminist face ( Prügl, 2015 ; Roberts, 2015 ). An assumption running through this discourse is that the offerings of vocational trainings or work can lift women and their families out of poverty, reduce the costs of refugee assistance while also contributing to economic growth ( Gregoratti et al. , 2018 ; Oliver and Boyle, 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

million people remained in extreme poverty (less than US$1.90 per day) in 2015, while nearly one in every two people in the world (46 per cent) were trying to live on less than US$5.70 per day ( World Bank, 2018 : 69). Global hunger, once in decline, has increased over the past three years, reaching a level in excess of 821 million people ( WHO, 2018a ), while Asia had the highest absolute number (515 million people), sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence, with 23

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

role has diminished over the past decade, as they have been at least partially displaced by so-called socially responsible corporations and ‘philanthrocapitalism’ à la Bill and Melinda Gates, which increasingly are presented (and, of course, present themselves) as indispensable to any successful effort to combat poverty, hunger and disease in the poor world. 2 Even so, the moral warrant that NGOs provide for the great Western powers is still viewed in Washington, Brussels and elsewhere as being of value. A US Secretary of State might not, today, go

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

members of the Tutsi ethnic group with the intent to destroy the group, rather than just random killing driven by popular rage: 1 This genocide was not an uncontrollable outburst of rage by a people consumed by ‘ancient tribal hatreds’. Nor was it the preordained result of the impersonal forces of poverty and over-population. This genocide resulted from the deliberate choice of a modern elite to foster hatred and fear to keep itself in power. This small, privileged group first set the majority against the minority to counter a growing political opposition within

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

impacts of operational changes both on the ‘established’ 450,000 registered Palestinian refugees who have resided in Lebanon since 1948 (primarily living in twelve official refugee camps and numerous informal gatherings in that country) and on the ‘more recently arrived’ 31,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria who have sought safety in Lebanon since 2011 from the ongoing Syrian conflict. Palestinian refugees from Syria (PRS) in Lebanon are considered by UNRWA to be a particularly vulnerable group – 90 per cent are living under the poverty line and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

tolerate suffering and death from poverty and it could use science and technology to mould and manipulate human behaviour without the use of brute physical violence. But liberals, true to the logic of their liberalism, baulk at overt and explicit killing and suppression of dissent. In other words, they have a problem with violence and a penchant for achieving their ends by other means (in the main, by using the law). It is characteristic of our era that we have tried to tell a story about human moral progress in the last two hundred years that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs