Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso

The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

health spend. Furthermore, the interrelationship of the barriers identified by DfID is noteworthy. For example, in LMICs the common dual barriers of inadequate sustainable resources and the scale of social determinants such as poverty and inequality result in multiple obstacles, such as ‘lack of … health care and services and skilled workforce’ and ‘data and information’; ‘poor quality of limited services’; and ‘poor integration of physical and mental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot, Lisa DiPangrazio, Dorcas Acen, Veronica Gatpan, and Ronald Apunyo

. A multi-country study in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia and Senegal identified how child marriage is influenced by intersections between poverty, lack of educational opportunities and norms that discriminate against girls ( Petroni et al. , 2017 ). In many contexts, marriage is linked to the onset of puberty ( Lal, 2015 ). Lower educational attainment may be a risk factor as well as a consequence of child marriage ( Stark, 2018 ). Child marriage may occur more among communities facing poverty ( Efevbera et al., 2019 ; Stark, 2018 ; UNICEF, 2014 ), communities living

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

has also lost its meaning. Disasters are developmental; so development has been set the task of re-wilding a post-social world. Within the economic logic of precarity, however, the global South has a special place. Able to utilise the relatively unregulated conditions existing there ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ), rather than eradicating poverty, the role of humanitarian innovation is to experiment, trial and anticipate the means to govern an emerging global precariat ( Jacobsen, 2015 ). In particular, the challenge is to sustain precarity in the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Róisín Read

, R. and Peyton , N. ( 2020 ), ‘ Power, Poverty, and Aid: The Mix that Fuelled Sex Abuse Claims in Congo ’, The New Humanitarian , 29 September, www.thenewhumanitarian.org/analysis/2020/09/29/Power-poverty-aid-sex-abuse-claims-Congo-Ebola-response (accessed 16 November 2020 ). Holvikivi

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

million people remained in extreme poverty (less than US$1.90 per day) in 2015, while nearly one in every two people in the world (46 per cent) were trying to live on less than US$5.70 per day ( World Bank, 2018 : 69). Global hunger, once in decline, has increased over the past three years, reaching a level in excess of 821 million people ( WHO, 2018a ), while Asia had the highest absolute number (515 million people), sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence, with 23

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

, 2011 ). Such economic strategies of empowerment have been identified as hallmarks of neoliberal development cloaked under a feminist face ( Prügl, 2015 ; Roberts, 2015 ). An assumption running through this discourse is that the offerings of vocational trainings or work can lift women and their families out of poverty, reduce the costs of refugee assistance while also contributing to economic growth ( Gregoratti et al. , 2018 ; Oliver and Boyle, 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

), ‘ Iconographies of Humanitarian Aid in Africa ’, in Bennett , C. (eds), Learning from the Past to Shape the Future. HPG Working Paper ( London : ODI ), pp. 15 – 30 . Dogra , N. ( 2012 ), Representations of Global Poverty: Aid, Development and International NGOs ( New York : I

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

role has diminished over the past decade, as they have been at least partially displaced by so-called socially responsible corporations and ‘philanthrocapitalism’ à la Bill and Melinda Gates, which increasingly are presented (and, of course, present themselves) as indispensable to any successful effort to combat poverty, hunger and disease in the poor world. 2 Even so, the moral warrant that NGOs provide for the great Western powers is still viewed in Washington, Brussels and elsewhere as being of value. A US Secretary of State might not, today, go

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

, including those of forced displacement. In sum, the Colombian government made great efforts to guarantee the rights of the displaced; however, these efforts have raised many dilemmas. 1 The literature on the Colombian government’s response to the phenomenon of internal displacement has focused on the effectiveness of comprehensive reparation measures. In this regard, several authors have pointed out the great difficulties state institutions face to alleviate the poverty of the displaced and to meet the needs of all people who have suffered this tragedy ( Ibáñez and Moya

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs