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A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

Introduction In October 2016 the New York Review of Books published an article by International Rescue Committee President David Miliband titled ‘The Best Ways to Deal with the Refugee Crisis’. It began with a predictable target. US Presidential candidate Donald Trump’s claims about a ‘tremendous flow’ of Syrian refugees making their way to North America were based in ‘myth, not fact’, Miliband wrote ( Miliband, 2016 ). Not only that: they also

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

a peace settlement ( ibid .: 365–7). Analysing the events in Juba in the immediate aftermath of the showdown between Kiir and Machar on 15 December 2013, Human Rights Watch pointed to the Presidential Guard’s – recruited among the President’s Dinka community – mass targeting of Nuer civilians, including public figures, for arrest and execution in the capital city as playing a crucial role in the rapid mobilisation of Nuer on the opposition’s side in Unity and Upper Nile

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

decorated living Brazilian diplomat. As we began discussing international affairs and strategy, Amorim’s speech assumed a calm, professorial cadence. ‘Global disorder’ undermines international cooperation, he suggested soberly. And there is a need to rescue human rights discourse, despite the hypocrisy and selectivity of its liberal proponents. Amorim leant forward when I brought up Brazil’s recent withdrawal from the world stage. As foreign minister throughout the two presidential terms of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2011, he guided

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

, Twitter, WhatsApp and other media platforms are all under increasing pressure to prevent harmful disinformation from circulating on their platforms. It is vital that these massive organisations start to tackle the problem. But there are also steps that researchers, journalists and humanitarians can take. The first priority is further research. Although fake news has dominated public debate, conference programming and presidential tweets for some time, we have relatively little empirical data about its reach or impact. A number of countries have

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor: Peter Burnell

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Executive versus legislative power
Cameron Ross

FAD7 10/17/2002 6:01 PM Page 122 7 Federalism and political asymmetry: executive versus legislative power As we have noted, political institutions are of crucial importance during transitions to democracy, and for Mainwaring, among all the choices of institutions ‘none is more important than the system of government: presidential, semipresidential, parliamentary or some hybrid’.1 There is now a general consensus in the literature that parliamentary systems are more stable than presidential ones and that it is much easier to consolidate democracy in

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Party system change and electoral prospects
Gilles Ivaldi

altering the balance of forces within the party system: while electorally irrelevant throughout the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s,1 Le Pen’s party has enjoyed high levels of electoral support over the past decade with an average 15 per cent of the national vote cast in the successive elections of 1995, 1997 and 1998 (see Table 9.1). TABLE 9.1 The FN in national elections (1984–2002) Year 1984 1986 1988 1988 1989 1993 1994 1995 1997 1999 2002 Election European Legislative Presidential Legislative European Legislative European Presidential Legislative European

in The French party system
Andrew Monaghan

as ‘unprecedented’, were removed from their Russian context, both in terms of previous post-Soviet era Russian protests, but also that election year which lasted not from the announcement of the power swap in September, and then from the parliamentary elections in December 2011 to the presidential ones in March 2012, but from the regional elections held in March 2011 through to spring 2012. The

in The new politics of Russia
Jonathan Colman

domestic dissent and a mounting death toll in Vietnam, announced that he would not seek another term in of-fice, 74 and the Republican contender, Richard Nixon, won the presidential election on 5 November that year. On 13 January 1969, Johnson asked Dean to tell Wilson that ‘one of his great comforts had been that he could always count on the UK during any crisis’. He was ‘personally grateful for the warm and effective relations he had always had with

in A ‘special relationship’?
Deepening ties and securitising cyberspace
Maryanne Kelton and Zac Rogers

norms and international regimes drew marked support. From his understanding of America as a Pacific nation, to his repeated visits to the region, his familial connections with Indonesia, and his cooperative diplomacy, Obama’s intent to work with the region was clear. In these respects, Australia was reassured by the presidential interest in its immediate region. Emblematic too of the Obama effect in the relationship was Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s 2011 statement to the US Congress, in which she announced that Australia was ‘[a]‌n ally for the sixty years past and

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific