Open Access (free)
Biography of a Radical Newspaper
Robert Poole

The newly digitised Manchester Observer (1818–22) was England’s leading radical newspaper at the time of the Peterloo meeting of August 1819, in which it played a central role. For a time it enjoyed the highest circulation of any provincial newspaper, holding a position comparable to that of the Chartist Northern Star twenty years later and pioneering dual publication in Manchester and London. Its columns provide insights into Manchester’s notoriously secretive local government and policing and into the labour and radical movements of its turbulent times. Rich materials in the Home Office papers in the National Archives reveal much about the relationship between radicals in London and in the provinces, and show how local magistrates conspired with government to hound the radical press in the north as prosecutions in London ran into trouble. This article also sheds new light on the founding of the Manchester Guardian, which endured as the Observer’s successor more by avoiding its disasters than by following its example. Despite the imprisonment of four of its main editors and proprietors the Manchester Observer battled on for five years before sinking in calmer water for lack of news.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Open Access (free)
An Interview with James Campbell
Douglas Field and Justin A. Joyce

James Baldwin Review editors Douglas Field and Justin A. Joyce interview author and Baldwin biographer James Campbell on the occasion of the reissue of his book Talking at the Gates (Polygon and University of California Press, 2021).

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

Fassin (2012 : chapter 6). 4 For extensive treatment of the iconography, see Chouliaraki (2013) . Works Cited Barnett , M. N. (ed.) ( 2020 ), Humanitarianism and Human Rights: A World of Differences ? ( Cambridge University Press

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

). Bauman , Z. ( 2000 ), Liquid Modernity ( Cambridge : Polity Press ). Becker , K. F. ( 2004 ), The Informal Economy: Fact Finding Study ( Stockholm : Sida ). Betts , A. and Bloom , L . ( 2014 ), ‘ Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art ’, in OCHA Policy and Studies Series ( New York : United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs ). Boltanski , L. and Chiapello , E . ( 2005 ), The New Spirit of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

Rever herself faced threats to herself and her family in Europe and Canada traced to Rwandan forces. 5 This claim is based on my own conversations with HRW officials during my time working for them. Bibliography Barnett , M. ( 2003 ), Eyewitness to Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda ( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ). Berry , M. E. ( 2018 ), War, Women, and Power: From Violence to Mobilization in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). Bradol , J-H. and Le Pape , M. ( 2017

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

this matter. Works Cited Barnett , M. ( 2011 ), Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism ( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ). Birkmann , J. , Setiadi , N. and Fiedler

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

. ( 1999 ), Distant Suffering: Morality, Media and Politics ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). Borton , J. ( 2016 ), ‘ Improving the Use of History by the International Humanitarian Sector ’, European Review of History: Revue européenne d’histoire , 23 : 1–2 , 193 – 209

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the American-Spanish war, and it continued through the ‘penny press’ era in the US, where duelling editors sought to grow their readership with fantastical and scandalous accounts of events ( Tucher, 1994 ). Although it is not new, two factors are making the challenges of disinformation far more acute today. The first is technology. The internet has led to an explosion of all information sources – both truthful and false – and the sheer quantity of sources makes it increasingly difficult

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Paul Currion

– such as double-entry bookkeeping or the printing press – are invisible to most of us precisely because they form part of the rules that we play by now ( Eisenstein, 2005 ; Soll, 2014 ). The paradigm shifted before our time, and we recognise it only with hindsight. Such paradigm innovation is however part of the 4Ps model developed by John Bessant and Joe Tidd ( Tidd et al. , 2005 ) and adopted by Elrha’s Humanitarian Innovation Fund to categorise different types of innovation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924 (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare) ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). de Laat , S. ( 2019 ), [‘Seeing Refugees’]‘Using Old Photographs to Gain New Perspectives on Refugees, Past and Present’ , in Ross , D. (ed.), Confronting Canadian Migration History , https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-9UUcbORUmrxOG4dUr1yj5p2CMKBL98e/view (accessed 8 September 2021 ). Doherty , J. and International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House ( 1978

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs