The newly digitised Manchester Observer (1818–22) was
England’s leading radical newspaper at the time of the Peterloo meeting
of August 1819, in which it played a central role. For a time it enjoyed the
highest circulation of any provincial newspaper, holding a position comparable
to that of the Chartist Northern Star twenty years later and
pioneering dual publication in Manchester and London. Its columns provide
insights into Manchester’s notoriously secretive local government and
policing and into the labour and radical movements of its turbulent times. Rich
materials in the Home Office papers in the National Archives reveal much about
the relationship between radicals in London and in the provinces, and show how
local magistrates conspired with government to hound the radical press in the
north as prosecutions in London ran into trouble. This article also sheds new
light on the founding of the Manchester Guardian, which endured
as the Observer’s successor more by avoiding its
disasters than by following its example. Despite the imprisonment of four of its
main editors and proprietors the Manchester Observer battled on
for five years before sinking in calmer water for lack of news.
Colonial powers and Ethiopian frontiers 1880–1884 is the fourth volume of Acta
Aethiopica, a series that presents original Ethiopian documents of
nineteenth-century Ethiopian history with English translations and scholarly
notes. The documents have been collected from dozens of archives in Africa and
Europe to recover and present the Ethiopian voice in the history of Ethiopia in
the nineteenth century. The present book, the first Acta Aethiopica volume to
appear from Lund University Press, deals with how Ethiopian rulers related to
colonial powers in their attempts to open Ethiopia for trade and technological
development while preserving the integrity and independence of their country. In
addition to the correspondence and treatises with the rulers and representatives
of Italy, Egypt and Great Britain, the volume also presents letters dealing with
ecclesiastical issues, including the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.
James Baldwin Review editors Douglas Field and Justin A. Joyce interview author and Baldwin biographer James Campbell on the occasion of the reissue of his book Talking at the Gates (Polygon and University of California Press, 2021).
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Modernity ( Cambridge : Polity
Becker , K.
F. ( 2004 ), The Informal
Economy: Fact Finding Study ( Stockholm :
Betts , A. and
L . ( 2014 ),
‘ Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art ’,
in OCHA Policy and Studies Series ( New York :
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Boltanski , L. and
E . ( 2005 ), The New
Rever herself faced threats to herself and her family in Europe and Canada traced to Rwandan forces.
This claim is based on my own conversations with HRW officials during my time working for them.
Barnett , M. ( 2003 ), Eyewitness to Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda ( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ).
Berry , M. E. ( 2018 ), War, Women, and Power: From Violence to Mobilization in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ).
Bradol , J-H. and Le Pape , M. ( 2017
( 1999 ), Distant Suffering: Morality, Media
and Politics ( Cambridge :
Borton , J.
( 2016 ), ‘ Improving the Use
of History by the International Humanitarian Sector ’,
European Review of History: Revue européenne
d’histoire , 23 : 1–2 ,
193 – 209
). Staged and fabricated content was also common during the
American-Spanish war, and it continued through the ‘penny press’ era in the US,
where duelling editors sought to grow their readership with fantastical and scandalous accounts
of events ( Tucher, 1994 ).
Although it is not new, two factors are making the challenges of disinformation far more acute
today. The first is technology. The internet has led to an explosion of all information sources
– both truthful and false – and the sheer quantity of sources makes it
– such as double-entry bookkeeping or the printing press – are invisible
to most of us precisely because they form part of the rules that we play by now ( Eisenstein, 2005 ; Soll, 2014 ). The paradigm shifted before our time, and we
recognise it only with hindsight. Such paradigm innovation is however part of the 4Ps
model developed by John Bessant and Joe Tidd ( Tidd
et al. , 2005 ) and adopted by Elrha’s Humanitarian Innovation Fund to categorise different types of innovation
looming environmental disasters. Domestically, the liberal social contract is
coming apart in many Western states as the coalition of those who have not benefited from the
decades of wealth accumulation after 1979 turns to populist politicians and looks for scapegoats,
with experts, immigrants and Muslims seen as prime targets. The commitment to liberal
institutions that create limits to the scope of political competition – rights, the rule
of law, freedom of the press – and to the basic level of respect due to all persons, be
they citizens or refugees