Open Access (free)
Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

Paul Currion

– such as double-entry bookkeeping or the printing press – are invisible to most of us precisely because they form part of the rules that we play by now ( Eisenstein, 2005 ; Soll, 2014 ). The paradigm shifted before our time, and we recognise it only with hindsight. Such paradigm innovation is however part of the 4Ps model developed by John Bessant and Joe Tidd ( Tidd et al. , 2005 ) and adopted by Elrha’s Humanitarian Innovation Fund to categorise different types of innovation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

bodies, but also by the din of conflicting words, claims and narratives. But the forms that this disinformation has taken have constantly changed as technology has changed, from printing presses to wireless and TV and now to social media. The rapid growth in internet penetration and social media usage worldwide has made it easier and quicker to access and share vast quantities of news, information and entertainment – and this has proved fertile ground for all kinds of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Settler emigration, the voyage out, and shipboard literary production
Fariha Shaikh

This chapter explores the spatialising methodologies of shipboard periodicals produced on three ships as they voyaged between Britain and Australia across the oceanic expanses of the southern hemisphere in the mid-nineteenth century: the Sobraon , the Somersetshire , and the True Briton . By the 1860s, newspapers produced on board the ship by passengers between Britain and the Antipodes were a regular affair: fair copies of newspapers were produced by hand and distributed around the ship, or, if the ship carried a printing press, newspapers were produced at

in Worlding the south
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and John Lydgate’s Troy Book
Heather Blatt

the spectre of his or his work’s flaws in order to elicit a kinder reception by readers.2 It is a trope used by two of the three most influential poets of late-medieval England, Geoffrey Chaucer and his successor John Lydgate, and is turned to repeatedly by the merchant and translator who first introduced the printing press to England, William Caxton. In the hands of all three, and in its use by scores of other writers from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries, the topos accomplishes work that extends beyond the performance of humility and its

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
Open Access (free)
Petitions, politics, and the African Christian converts of the nineteenth century
Hlonipha Mokoena

their relationship to the Empire and especially to Queen Victoria are what distinguishes their writing from any other type of political writing in South Africa. In their constant interaction with not just settlers but a variety of colonial and imperial officials, these petitioners often spoke the language of legal rights more consistently and more forcefully than would have been expected at the time. The main endowment that made such a petition culture possible was the arrival of the printing press in southern Africa and the manner in which this technology changed

in Worlding the south
Open Access (free)
Elizabeth Vandiver, Ralph Keen, and Thomas D. Frazel

made their first faith void.” ’ 5 Throughout his life Cochlaeus remained an enthusiastic persecutor of heresy wherever he found it. With unconcealed pleasure he chronicles the decline and fall of the short-lived Anabaptist ‘kingdom of a thousand year’ at Münster (1534–5) – from the excesses of its tailor-turned-king, John of Leiden, to the massacre of his followers. Cochlaeus prides himself on directing the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament in 1525, and

in Luther’s lives
Open Access (free)
Beyond the witch trials
Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt

Stephan Bachter shows, the printing presses were equally instrumental in promoting and disseminating counter-Enlightenment modes of thought. They outline the rise of a ‘magic media market’, characterised by the popularisation of once intellectual occult subject matter, and the publication in German of once scarce manuscript sources. These developments were to have an impact far beyond European shores. Considering that the eighteenth century saw a significant widening of access to written sources of knowledge, it seems rather ironic that historians should be put off

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Nonreading in late-medieval England
Heather Blatt

also of readers and the spaces they inhabited while reading, impacted reading experiences in profound ways. In explicitly inviting, modelling, or discouraging such practices, writers considered what it meant to be a reader even as their understanding of what it meant to be a writer underwent change influenced by altering notions of their own authority and, eventually, the printing press. They determined that readers could indeed participate in the creation of meaning, and guided their audiences towards the types of reading practices that did not require formal

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England