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Open Access (free)
Female theatre workers and professional practice

Stage women, 1900–50 explores the many ways in which women conceptualised, constructed and participated in networks of professional practice in the theatre and performance industries between 1900 and 1950. A timely volume full of original research, the book explores women’s complex negotiations of their agency over both their labour and public representation, and their use of personal and professional networks to sustain their careers. Including a series of case studies that explore a range of well-known and lesser-known women working in theatre, film and popular performance of the period. The volume is divided into two connected parts. ‘Female theatre workers in the social and theatrical realm’ looks at the relationship between women’s work – on- and offstage – and autobiography, activism, technique, touring, education and the law. Part II, ‘Women and popular performance’, focuses on the careers of individual artists, once household names, including Lily Brayton, Ellen Terry, radio star Mabel Constanduros, and Oscar-winning film star Margaret Rutherford. Overall, the book provides new and vibrant cultural histories of women’s work in the theatre and performance industries of the period.

Open Access (free)
Collecting contacts with Gabrielle Enthoven
Kate Dorney

This chapter explores the personal and professional networks created by female theatre practitioners in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century through a detailed case study of Gabrielle Enthoven – actor, playwright, translator and theatre collector. Born into privilege, Enthoven was the daughter of a colonial administrator who grew up in Egypt and the Sudan. She lived in Windsor, met Oscar Wilde and played with the royal children, spending her twenties messing about on boats and in theatres with the local soldiers. She then married and moved to Chelsea and began to network with theatre and arts professionals before devoting her life and wealth to creating a world-class collection of theatre ephemera that she donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

in Stage women, 1900–50
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson

This chapter examines collegiality and the instrumentality of informal networks in the production of knowledge around 1900 as exemplified by the German classical archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907). Based on a relatively well documented case from the formative period in the modern history of Classical archaeology, this chapter explores how and to what extent various dynamic processes within the discipline can be affected when a key actor in the system for some reason withdraws or is excluded from the social aspects of the profession. Although Furtwängler was one of the most prolific and influential Classical archaeologists of his generation, his wide-ranging contribution is little discussed in the discipline’s modern histories, for various reasons. Based on substantial unpublished archive material that permits a detailed reconstruction of his professional networks and work methods, this chapter discusses Furtwängler’s problematic interaction with the scholarly community and his various strategies for creating and maintaining professional relations with institutions and individuals considered indispensable for his own work.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
James Breasted’s early scientific network
Kathleen Sheppard

to the formation of the professional discipline than published scholarship and institutional organization. This chapter focuses on James Breasted’s early professional network, specifically the two nodes that he cultivated on his first trip to Egypt: the British field archaeologist Flinders Petrie and the French Director of the Department of Antiquities in Egypt, Gaston Maspero. These personal and professional networks then expanded from the institutional hubs into the broader scientific discipline of Egyptology. In scientific networks, nodes are the people around

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Helen Brooks and Penny Bee

such cases local opinion leaders and interactive educational meetings, facilitated by a mix of academic and service user/ carer researchers, can be a powerful way of raising awareness and stimulating the momentum for practice change. To encourage wider roll-out of the outputs of research, teams may in addition consider holding a stakeholder conferences to engage regional or national audiences. In certain cases, they may also consider establishing online knowledge repositories with downloadable resources that link directly to patient and professional networks or

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Lennart J. Lundqvist

environmental administrators in other municipalities. These contacts were even more frequent than those with their local politicians or with local action groups, local media, and local associations. CEI contacts with environmental officers at the county level are almost as lively as the contacts with municipal politicians. There is thus a very specific professional network on environmental and resource management at the local and regional levels (CEIS 1991). The impact of such professional networks on the effectiveness of ecological governance (see further ch. 6) very much

in Sweden and ecological governance
Open Access (free)
A cognitive perspective
Gilles Allaire

‘masters’ – a form of expert – by both producers and consumers in what can be called ‘organic’ community networks. Within these networks credence systems have developed, including dedicated direct provision networks and confidential trademark supports (e.g. ‘Demeter’, since 1928). In this context of ‘domestic’ and ‘inspired’ types of quality convention (to use the classification of Boltanski and Thévenot 1991), incipient organic farming professional networks eventually led to the normalisation and emergence of ‘industrial’ and ‘market oriented’ organic quality

in Qualities of food
Lars Norén and Agneta Ranerup

sources available to users: statistics from professional networks conducting evaluations of care units; primary school inspections by government institutions; and calculations such as the Sharpe ratio (risk in relation to earnings) developed by Nobel laureate William Sharpe, in relation to investment bonds. The designers’ configuration of users was relatively loose, and the guides constrained their users in a limited way. The users were put at the center of an action net that was to result in a choice. Thus, increased knowledge and a long-term view were ways intended to

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge
Julia Roberts and Kathleen Sheppard

publication of aggressive criticisms and personal attacks on colleagues resulted in a problematic relationship which then affected the career decisions he made. While the immense quantity of work Furtwängler produced over his lifetime cannot be ignored, Hansson argues that his impact on artefact studies has been overlooked by conventional histories of archaeology as a direct result of his fractious character. Drawing on unpublished archival material Hansson reconstructs Furtwängler’s professional networks and work methods. Arwill-Nordbladh’s subject, Hanna Rydh, also

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Maggie B. Gale and Kate Dorney

’ Franchise League discussed by Naomi Paxton, or the Theatrical Ladies’ Guild discussed by Catherine Hindson. Some were characterised more by shifting affiliations and practices and, as a result, can be more challenging to map. In response to such a challenge Catherine Clay, in her study of British women writers between 1914 and 1945, selected three foci to reveal the personal and professional networks of writers including Vera Brittain, Winifred Holtby and Stella Benson. These foci are geography – based on different areas of London; ­publishing – specifically Time and Tide

in Stage women, 1900–50