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Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

. These reflections may be at odds with how the professionalisation of security has given rise to a separate set of security concerns and actors, or, in other words, how the issue of humanitarian security has largely been addressed as an isolated and distinct issue. But what all the contributions to the issue demonstrate is that humanitarian security is not and cannot ever be tackled separately from broader humanitarian dynamics. Another feature of many discourses on humanitarian security is that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

imperatives of the New Public Management. And NGOs used these reforms to accelerate the professionalisation of the aid sector ( Fiori et al ., 2016 ). But at the turn of the millennium, there were indications of a downturn in the influence of humanitarian ideas on Western geostrategy. The strategic value of humanitarian intervention diminished as the US launched its totalising war on terror. Humanitarianism was little more than an afterthought to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Since then, despite the continued rise in donations to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

. ( 2016 ), ‘ Minor Miracle or Historic Failure Ahead for UN ’, Refugees Deeply , 8 August, (accessed 25 July 2018) . Dauvin , P. ( 2004 ), ‘ On Being a Humanitarian Aid Worker under an Imposed Code of Professionalisation ’, Revue

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

( Bugnion, 2003 : 125–6; Taithe, 2016 : 43–7). However, it is over the past thirty years that these concerns have been addressed by increasingly professionalised approaches ( Gentile, 2011 ; Neuman, 2016a : 26-28; Stoddard et al. , 2006 : 21–35). The expansion and professionalisation of efforts to protect the local civilian population in contexts of armed conflict is evident in the range of policy statements, handbooks and guidelines ( Global Protection

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

. Neuman , M. ( 2016 ), ‘ On Danger, Sacrifice and Professionalisation: MSF and the Security Debate ’, in Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds), Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst ), pp. 21 – 36 . Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. ( 2016 ), ‘ Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ’, in Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds), Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst ), pp. 1 – 20 . Pérouse de Montclos

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

extensive and the ongoing damage to its moral reputation profound. We have stark reality contrasted with idealistic vision. Humanitarians need the hope – how else would they get up and go to work? – but they experience the reality, too. Why has this dissonance not broken humanitarianism apart? For a variety of familiar reasons. One is institutional inertia – there are a lot of organisations and individual careers riding on the continuation of the humanitarian project. A second is professionalisation, the careers people have built as humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Female theatre workers and professional practice

Stage women, 1900–50 explores the many ways in which women conceptualised, constructed and participated in networks of professional practice in the theatre and performance industries between 1900 and 1950. A timely volume full of original research, the book explores women’s complex negotiations of their agency over both their labour and public representation, and their use of personal and professional networks to sustain their careers. Including a series of case studies that explore a range of well-known and lesser-known women working in theatre, film and popular performance of the period. The volume is divided into two connected parts. ‘Female theatre workers in the social and theatrical realm’ looks at the relationship between women’s work – on- and offstage – and autobiography, activism, technique, touring, education and the law. Part II, ‘Women and popular performance’, focuses on the careers of individual artists, once household names, including Lily Brayton, Ellen Terry, radio star Mabel Constanduros, and Oscar-winning film star Margaret Rutherford. Overall, the book provides new and vibrant cultural histories of women’s work in the theatre and performance industries of the period.

Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

Open Access (free)
Actresses, charity work and the early twentieth-century theatre profession
Catherine Hindson

This chapter considers aspects of public charity work undertaken by actresses in the 1910s, focusing on their work selling for charitable causes within the commercial sector at Harrods department store in London. Charity labour has been overlooked in understandings of the theatre industry during this period, yet the considerable amount of voluntary work that actresses undertook was significant to the continuing improved social and cultural position of the British stage more generally. Charity work at home and overseas brought an increasing level of professionalisation to actresses’ work in the voluntary sector and wider recognition of the charitable activities they undertook.

in Stage women, 1900–50
So what went wrong?
Odette Best

Relatively few Indigenous Australians work as nurses, midwives, doctors or other health professionals yet they face the poorest health outcomes of any population group in Australia, with significantly reduced life expectancy. This paper places these two issues within their historical context tracing the history of nursing in Australia, from its earliest days when six nurses trained by Florence Nightingale arrived in the colony. It compares the training of non-Indigenous nurses and the emerging professionalisation of nursing with training received by ‘native nurses’ living on government-run settlements in Queensland. ‘Native nurses’ were trained to work under supervision of white nurses but confined to working with Indigenous patients on settlements and reserves rather than within the wider hospital system. This chapter argues that Australia differed from other British colonies in its treatment and recruitment of Indigenous nurses, by ignoring British recommendations to train them, and instead relying upon nurses brought in from overseas or recruited amongst the white settlers. This historical perspective helps to inform an understanding of the health issues that currently face Indigenous Australians.

in Colonial caring