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Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

know professionalising the humanitarian sector is again another issue that poses problems for some people about what is meant by that. Well, I would like to think that you could combine professionalism and humanitarianism. There should not have to be a separate career in doing medical humanitarian work. It should all be part of your general medical career. You could then move from different environments throughout your career more easily and not separate them off in this way. Because if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

on Irreducible Uncertainties in Professional Work? A Historical Outline of “Prudential Professionalism” ’, Cambio , 8 : 16 . doi: 10.13128/cambio-23330 . Collinson , S. and Elhawary , S. ( 2012 ), Humanitarian Space: A Review of Trends and Issues , Humanitarian Policy Group, HPG Report 32 ( London : Overseas

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

also now questioned. In separating itself from the failures of the past, humanitarian innovation problematises the concerted attempts since the 1990s to professionalise the aid system, especially the numerous moves to standardise humanitarian engagement through behavioural codes, ground rules, technical guidelines and performance benchmarking ( Fiori et al ., 2016 ). Reflecting late-capitalism’s disdain for independent standards and autonomous expertise, side-lining humanitarian professionalism can be seen as a necessary condition for the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Chronic disease and clinical bureaucracy in post-war Britain

Through a study of diabetes care in post-war Britain, this book is the first historical monograph to explore the emergence of managed medicine within the National Health Service. Much of the extant literature has cast the development of systems for structuring and reviewing clinical care as either a political imposition in pursuit of cost control or a professional reaction to state pressure. By contrast, Managing Diabetes, Managing Medicine argues that managerial medicine was a co-constructed venture between profession and state. Despite possessing diverse motives – and though clearly influenced by post-war Britain’s rapid political, technological, economic, and cultural changes – general practitioners (GPs), hospital specialists, national professional and patient bodies, a range of British government agencies, and influential international organisations were all integral to the creation of managerial systems in Britain. By focusing on changes within the management of a single disease at the forefront of broader developments, this book ties together innovations across varied sites at different scales of change, from the very local programmes of single towns to the debates of specialists and professional leaders in international fora. Drawing on a broad range of archival materials, published journals, and medical textbooks, as well as newspapers and oral histories, Managing Diabetes, Managing Medicine not only develops fresh insights into the history of managed healthcare, but also contributes to histories of the NHS, medical professionalism, and post-war government more broadly.

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indirect connections, especially in light of the role that health management organisations play in the care of chronic disease and their emphasis on guidelines and audit. 46 As with managerial medicine more broadly, further comparative histories are needed to throw the relationships between chronic disease and professional management into greater relief. 47 Professionals, professionalism, and the state What, then, does the emergence of professional management in post-war Britain say about the changing nature of

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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would have to professionalise in order to meet their goals. The founders of the ISI emphasised the professionalism of the institute and limited membership to 150 to keep out the ‘free-floating intelligentsia’, who in the opinion of many experts had had a disruptive influence on the congresses. Membership did not reach 150 until the end of the century. Professionalisation was a broad goal encompassing many areas of activity. ISI publications, in particular the Bulletin de l’Institut international de statistique, addressed the subjects and methods of statistical

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Consumerism and alienation in 1950s comedies

over Nazi Germany’s unsportingly ruthless professionalism, but their villains, rather than being improbably moustached failed Austrian artists, are profiteering businesses. Throughout the decade’s comedies, consumerism is the enemy of consensus, an alienating presence impinging on the value of work and, through the individualising agency of television, the domestic space. The

in British cinema of the 1950s
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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

Global smallpox eradication was achieved only after decades of unsuccessful experiments in smallpox-endemic countries. A case in point occurred in 1958 when a severe epidemic imposed heavy mortality on East Pakistan. In response a Bengali regional-nationalist ‘Citizens Provincial Epidemic Control Committee’ pushed aside the provincial health department and launched an eradication campaign based on student volunteers using foreign-donated vaccine. In a period of ten weeks thousands of volunteers vaccinated thirty million Bengalis, albeit relying on shortcuts in sterile technique and neglect of patient record-keeping. The US government, in support of its Cold War ally, Pakistan, provided half of the vaccine supplies. The US also sent a team of Communicable Disease Center epidemiologists to assist public health officials. The team, led by Alexander D. Langmuir, proposed ‘active surveillance’ methods but was constrained by T. Aidan Cockburn, the Chief Public Health Adviser, who favored the Bengalis’ volunteer approach. A struggle developed between politicised volunteerism and epidemiological professionalism, and the CDC experts failed to prevail. The two sides' published reports thus made contradictory recommendations to the global campaign, but subsequent experience has shown that both mass participation and active surveillance are critical ingredients for successful disease control and eradication programmes

in The politics of vaccination

This chapter outlines how and why civil aviation schedules were regulated in the post-war period, tracing the shifting regulatory relationships between the British state, business and individual workers during the four decades after 1954. It argues that programmes to manage imbalance did not neatly map onto broader changes in British politics. Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, British governments consistently refused to formally control airline schedules. Regulations limiting working hours and attempting to balance the duty cycle were introduced, but responsibility for fatigue management ultimately remained with individual pilots, and regulation and enforcement thus continued to be permissive and flexible. Despite supposed shifts from social democratic to neo-liberal governments in Britain, a liberal, gentlemanly professionalism remained a consistent frame for the regulation of work and fatigue. Through its examination of aviation scheduling, therefore, this chapter asks how and why new selves were constructed and regulated in the post-war period at the expense of structural adjustments to working environments; sets out a new timeline for twentieth-century subjectivity; and historicises present-day concerns with work-life balance and the costs of overwork.

in Balancing the self