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A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

The first autism can only be understood in the context of the legal and institutional networks that enabled the spread of psychological theory as applied to infants and children in Britain in the early twentieth century. This chapter examines the integration of the concept of autism into psychological theory in Britain and the significance of

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development
Bonnie Evans

the 1960s, psychiatric epidemiology was regarded as a new tool with which to challenge theories of the unconscious in child development. By the 1990s, psychological theories on the significance of unconscious instinctual drives to the development of pathological forms of infantile thought were virtually obsolete. They had been superseded and subsumed within new neuroscientific models for understanding

in The metamorphosis of autism
Bonnie Evans

the finer points of psychological theory could be interrogated in depth. Because the Mental Deficiency, Education and National Health Service Acts made no mention of the concepts of childhood psychosis or schizophrenia, the children diagnosed with these conditions had no legal rights to long-term treatment or education. The Maudsley psychotic clinic was founded partly in order to

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Brian J. Loasby

’s philosophical work – though he had studied Kant’s response to it – nor Adam Smith’s remarkable development of it in his psychological theory of the growth of science (1980), but he was later to make the connection with Smith’s best-known application of his theory. As I have observed, the basic, and very powerful, skill of human cognition is the creation and application of patterns (of which logical reasoning is a special case); and Smith characterises scientific activity as the invention of ‘connecting principles’ which provide a credible account of relationships between

in Market relations and the competitive process
Open Access (free)
Caroline Rusterholz

put forward a strong narrative of female emancipation from traditional norms in that they encouraged women to take an active role during sexual intercourse, breaking with the expected passive role of women in sexual relations. Wright called for a revision of gender roles and focused on the importance of the clitoris as the locus for pleasure; Malleson put her patients’ demands at the centre of her work. She used psychological theory to help patients overcome their sexual disorders. Overall, the period between 1935 and 1956 saw women doctors undermining traditional

in Women’s medicine
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition
Monica Mookherjee

’, or paternalistic intrusion into the minds of the oppressors ( 2003 : 31). Her concern is also that if the psychological theory through which the harm is explained were discredited, then a person's claim of unjust misrecognition would fail. Furthermore, and perhaps most relevant for cosmopolitan feminism, Fraser is anxious that any account of misrecognition based on a theory of the human

in Recognition and Global Politics
A naturalistic approach
Gilberto Corbellini and Elisabetta Sirgiovanni

self-control depletion promotes unethical behaviour’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 115: 191–203. Greenspan, S., and Love, P. F. (1997), ‘Social intelligence and developmental disorder: mental retardation, learning disabilities, and autism’, in E. MacLean (ed.), Ellis’ Handbook of Mental Deficiency: Psychological Theory and Research, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 311–42. Hassin, R. R., Ochsner, K. N., and Trope, Y. (eds) (2010), Self-Control in Society, Mind, and Brain. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience, New York: Oxford

in The freedom of scientific research
Bonnie Evans

about the way to collect and employ scientific data when making claims about children’s early development. As discussed in Chapter 1 , the first autism was adopted into psychological theory in Britain primarily via major mental health institutions, child guidance clinics and progressive and permissive schools. It was not integrated via the

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Judith Squires

Political Thought (Oxford, Martin Robertson, 1981); C. Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1982); S. Ruddick, Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace (Boston, MA, Beacon Press, 1989); J. Tronto, Moral Boundaries: The Political Argument for an Ethic of Care (New York, Routledge, 1993

in Political concepts