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Metropolis, India and progress in the colonial imagination
Author: John Marriott

This is a detailed study of the various ways in which London and India were imaginatively constructed by British observers during the nineteenth century. This process took place within a unified field of knowledge that brought together travel and evangelical accounts to exert a formative influence on the creation of London and India for the domestic reading public. Their distinct narratives, rhetoric and chronologies forged homologies between representations of the metropolitan poor and colonial subjects—those constituencies that were seen as the most threatening to imperial progress. Thus the poor and particular sections of the Indian population were inscribed within discourses of western civilization as regressive and inferior peoples. Over time, these discourses increasingly promoted notions of overt and rigid racial hierarchies, the legacy of which remains to this day. This comparative analysis looks afresh at the writings of observers such as Henry Mayhew, Patrick Colquhoun, Charles Grant, Pierce Egan, James Forbes and Emma Roberts, thereby seeking to rethink the location of the poor and India within the nineteenth-century imagination. Drawing upon cultural and intellectual history, it also attempts to extend our understanding of the relationship between ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’.

Organizing principles, 1900–1919
Katie Pickles

World War provided the opportunity for the IODE, backed by such ideology, to exert its energies in defence of the Empire. Constructing Anglo-Celts and racial hierarchies The IODE forthrighly articulated belief in a ‘British’ race, and it is important to survey the implications of Britishness in the Canadian context. Kay Anderson’s work on Canadian racial discourse in Vancouver

in Female imperialism and national identity
Open Access (free)
Women, internal colonization and indigenous peoples
Katie Pickles

The chapter highlights the influence of the USA and looks to the IODE's most recent projects in the Canadian north, covering the demise of the ‘racial hierarchy’ and the IODE's corresponding shift of focus away from immigrants to the canadianising of ‘new’ Canadians. It shows the IODE negotiating a position increasingly away from that of government, moving towards children and individuals as the focus of its ‘charity’. The IODE has shifted focus, a shift that began during the Cold War, to a group of citizens who, although living within Canadian territory, were previously considered ‘foreign’. This shift represented a change in Canada's identity from that of a dominion in the Empire, with an identity centered on Britain, to that of a nation situated in Canadian geographic space. The decreasing confidence in colonial attitudes was reflected in the drifting away of the IODE from involvement with the Canadian government towards the spaces of charity and home. This study draws out the irony manifest in the attempt to assimilate indigenous peoples into the national project, and make them the same as other Canadians, while clinging to the spatial and social difference of the north. As this chapter shows, through the IODE's work in the Canadian north, this colonisation took place within a national boundary.

in Female imperialism and national identity
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30
Winifred C. Connerton

Indians called the Boriqueños, the early settlement by first Spanish traders and later plantation owners who brought African slaves to the island. The author notes that the races intermingled but that there were some people of pure Spanish ancestry.38 The existing racial hierarchy depended much more on legitimising claims to Spain than solely on skin colour. Nursing in the US at this time was segregated by race, and nursing superintendents made an effort to select students from outside the ‘domestic’ classes by requiring that applicants had at least a high

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Katie Pickles

desirable positions on the racial hierarchy that led the IODE to value British immigrants. Similarly, it was because of the fear that immigrants would not assimilate that the IODE focused on canadianization and, in doing so, more clearly defined a Canadian identity based upon features of that Canadian space. War forced the IODE to defend and define itself against the enemy, serving the ‘mother country’ in

in Female imperialism and national identity
Open Access (free)
Katie Pickles

-Canadian identity, and Canada’s place within the Empire. The second chapter covers the beginning years of the IODE, through to the end of the First World War. It introduces the ‘racial hierarchy’ of the IODE, and its preference for British immigration, that was to prove so important during the twentieth century. It covers the IODE’s work with immigrants, and then its maternal war-time labour. The third chapter

in Female imperialism and national identity
John Marriott

imperial modernity race came to define the boundaries of progress, as subject peoples were perceived increasingly in terms of rigidified racial hierarchies. In the chapters that follow I explore aspects of this process. To address the field in its entirety is well beyond the limits of a single volume. It would have been legitimate, for example, to examine mutualities between metropolis and colony in the

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
Feminism, anti-colonialism and a forgotten fight for freedom
Alison Donnell

we have been fighting for, let us use it to the full advantage’ – then Britain, with its blatant racism, demanded a more complicated and plural understanding of fights for freedom. 8 It was in this context, compelled by her growing awareness of Pan-African movements and the political urgency of contesting racial hierarchies, that Marson initiated the discourse on mutual liberation that is

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Anna Greenwood

is now universally accepted that the British were racist in their attitudes and actions towards their colonial subjects, also these attitudes could be subtly and selectively deployed adaptively and responsively to local situations. In colonial Africa, Africans were habitually portrayed as the least civilised race, the lowest rung in the racial hierarchy. But, as the case of the ZMA shows, when it suited

in Beyond the state
Cancer, modernity, and decline in fin-de-siècle Britain
Agnes Arnold-Forster

It was in this period in Britain that meditations on national decline and biological degeneration reached their zenith. Thus, this pathological asymmetry was explained through then current notions of racial hierarchy. 39 In 1880, E. Ray Lankester wrote, ‘We are subject to the general laws of evolution, and are as likely to degenerate as to progress’. 40 He was one of many writers negotiating theories of decline at the turn of the nineteenth into the twentieth century

in Progress and pathology