MCK1 1/10/2003 10:16 AM Page 13 1 Toleration and reasonableness Jeremy Waldron Traffic In the streets of a large city, people drive their cars for different reasons and to different destinations. Because the roads are crowded and because these different journeys cut across each other, with people going different ways through various intersections, there is a potential problem. If two vehicles pass through the same intersection at the same time, there may be a collision, and if there is, one or both of the drivers may fail to reach their destinations. (Indeed

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies

MCK2 1/10/2003 10:19 AM Page 38 2 The reasonableness of pluralism Matt Matravers and Susan Mendus Introduction In ‘The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus’, John Rawls remarks that the aims of political philosophy depend upon the society it addresses, and that modern, democratic societies are characterised by ‘the fact of pluralism’: they are societies in which different people have different and conflicting comprehensive conceptions of the good, different and conflicting beliefs about the right way to live morally speaking.1 Moreover, and troublingly, these

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
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Defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva

Reasonable doubt 7 Reasonable doubt: defences advanced in early modern sodomy trials in Geneva William G. Naphy There are few charges that can be made against individuals more likely to damage their lives, reputations and futures, than sexual deviance.1 In the early modern period, the danger was even greater as the crime carried the death penalty. For those faced with the gravest of punishments, one might be inclined to suppose that there was only one sure defensive strategy: outright denial. However, before testing this hypothesis, some general information on

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

, none present a fundamental or systemic challenge. There is an assumption that, in opening to divergent cross-boundary interactions, success is possible because reasonable people recognise some shared responsibility in making aid better. While HPG’s profiles display various potentials, limitations and conflicts, ultimately everyone involved – aid workers, donors and the disaster-affected – share the same humanitarian goal of better ‘access to basic services, safety, and opportunity, with the capacity to absorb shocks, and the agency to shape

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

prisoner protection. If you torture enemy combatants you have captured, your enemy will do the same to your POWs. The same logic goes for using chemical weapons and even nuclear weapons. This is how mutual deterrence works. This fits fully with the demands of sovereignty. Agreements that work meet the interests of both parties. This depends, of course, on the existence of a reasonable parity of capacity between states. Your enemy will not be afraid of your retaliation if it has nuclear weapons and you do not, as Iran, Israel, North Korea and the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

of the differences in the measures taken for expatriate staff as compared with national staff. A duty of care requires employers to take all reasonable measures to ensure the safety of their staff and to avoid the risk of foreseeable injury. On at least one interpretation, an agency’s duty of care extends only to risks that arise from an individual’s employment with that agency, and this could exclude many of the risks that locally hired staff face ( EISF, 2018 : 14). There is no equivalent legal obligation to protect other civilians – even for those agencies with

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Reasonable tolerance

The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates offer on toleration. This book starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate, reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, and the limited extent to which toleration can be granted. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal. There are several possible objections to, and ways of developing the ideal of, reasonable tolerance as advocated by John Rawls and by some other supporters of political liberalism. The first part of the book explores some of them. In some real-life conflicts, it is unclear on whom the burden of reasonableness may fall. This part discusses the reasonableness of pluralism, and general concept and various more specific conceptions of toleration. The forces of progressive politics have been divided into two camps: redistribution and recognition. The second part of the book is an attempt to explore the internal coherence of such a transformation when applied to different contexts. It argues that openness to others in discourse, and their treatment as free and equal, is part of a kind of reflexive toleration that pertains to public communication in the deliberative context. Social ethos, religious discrimination and education are discussed in connection with tolerance.

survive court challenge before the end of the Obama presidency in 2017. Reasonable network management and regulatory consultation The phrase ‘reasonable’ in connection with IAP traffic management was first included in footnote 15 to the 2005 Internet Policy Statement. It was designed to ensure that an IAP must demonstrate both that its

in Network neutrality
Ideology and the Conservative Party, 1997–2001

economic ideas. The years 1997 to 2001 were merely part of a period in which there was widespread agreement on these matters, so that governments were judged on their competence more than their convictions. What is ‘conservatism?’ The nature of British conservatism has been vigorously contested for much of the post-war period, and after the electoral meltdown of 1997 it was reasonable to expect a flurry of impassioned speeches and pamphlets setting out rival interpretations. Michael Oakeshott, whose name is invoked with respect by almost everyone who addresses this

in The Conservatives in Crisis
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From content warning to censorship

classrooms and online. While some content warnings (asking for some indication about what lies ahead on a blind digital trail) are quite reasonable given how much explicit material circulates on screens nowadays, we do need to question the relations between explicit representations and trauma. ‘Triggering’ as a term conceals a complex response system that operates in all of us as we navigate the world, but instead of defending viewers and students from difficult material, the trigger warning boils all explicit material down to assaultive imagery while at the same time it

in The power of vulnerability