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German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

Rackete, Juliano Fiori for inviting me to extend my ideas for another audience, and Karina Horsti for her comments on an earlier version of this paper. Notes 1 I am using this term here as a shortcut to refer to migrants whose entry to or residence in a country is officially conceptualised to be outside that country’s regulatory framework. 2 On Herrou, see, for example, Nossiter (2016) ; on Ersson, see, for example, Pham and Hakim (2019) . For other examples, see Fekete et al. , (2017 , 2019 ). 3 For the most recent figures, see the online

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

assigned to ‘humanitarian effectiveness’ ( Redfield, 2012 ) and how the sector should relate to a developing global regulatory framework that is accompanied by an evolving global ‘techno-legal consciousness’ ( Sandvik, 2018 ), where data protection and privacy are seen as basic rights ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ). My objective is to interrogate the ambiguous position of digital humanitarian goods developed at the interface of the affordances of emergency response contexts, the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Bonnie Clementsson

onward, it was thus permitted to apply for dispensation for cousin marriages. In other words, the pressures exerted and the opposition to the prohibition resulted in some relaxation of the regulatory framework. 14 But this did not mean that the national debate on cousin marriages fell silent. The priesthood in particular continued to argue against such alliances. According to the reasoning of the clergy, God's meaning may be ambiguously worded; but the relationships were nevertheless clearly unsound, and for this reason

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940
Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

agency. In fact, the agency not only “had to operate subject to intense political oversight, its effectiveness was compromised by a weak legal and regulatory framework and its need to obtain political authority, even for technical operations” (Enoch et al. 2001, 15). Nevertheless, the fact that IBRA’s restructuring agenda looked feasible raised hopes that finally something substantive was being done to deal with the country’s banking problems. On the basis of its review of the banks’ financial position, IBRA divided banks that had received substantial liquidity support

in The Asian financial crisis
Natasha Feiner

Prompted by this report, and increased public interest in flight safety following the air crash in Kallang, in the mid-1950s pilots’ hours of work and rest were reviewed by national agencies, and in 1957 a new regulatory framework was introduced to control pilots’ schedules. Based on a model of fatigue that had its roots in the late nineteenth century, the concept of balance was implicit in these regulations from the outset. The notion of fatigue was vague and contested throughout the twentieth century. Attempts to find a biological marker for fatigue

in Balancing the self
Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

-fuel industry on the nature and urgency of the climate problem – with a main distinction running between European and US-based companies. It is important to note that there were no breakthroughs in climate science immediately preceding the strategy changes that could have induced or persuaded the industry to change its strategy. Regime pressure In spite of strong opposition from the fossil-fuel lobby, parties to the UNFCCC succeeded in adopting the Kyoto Protocol – a regulatory framework for international GHG regulation that certainly represented a reinforcement of the more

in Climate change and the oil industry

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

A summary discussion
Bonnie Clementsson

– that an opportunity for change comes about. When single individuals or entire groups challenge social regulatory frameworks through speech or action, this leads to a questioning of the legitimacy of basic normative values, and the result of that is a renegotiation of the boundaries of the relevant norms. In the process of negotiation that ensues, cultural ideas and ideals which the actors take as their point of departure – and which they perceive to be relevant in the context – are made visible. These negotiations can lead either to the re-establishing of the

in Incest in Sweden, 1680–1940
Mark Harvey

competition is, empirically and optimally, into what amounts to a definition. Clusters of interconnected firms are seen to provide optimal competitive conditions for strategic differentiation, with the Porter diamond being used as a strategic tool for achieving the best combination of its four facets: factor inputs, supply chain networks, demand conditions, and regulatory frameworks and infrastructure. In this way, clusters are seen as being capable of going beyond static efficiency competition, beyond cost-reduction competition, and onwards and upwards to optimal forms of

in Market relations and the competitive process