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Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

effectiveness’ ( Redfield, 2012 ) and how the sector should relate to a developing global regulatory framework that is accompanied by an evolving global ‘techno-legal consciousness’ ( Sandvik, 2018 ), where data protection and privacy are seen as basic rights ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ). My objective is to interrogate the ambiguous position of digital humanitarian goods developed at the interface of the affordances of emergency response contexts, the accelerating digitisation of beneficiary bodies

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Open Access (free)
Crisis, reform and recovery
Shalendra D. Sharma

agency. In fact, the agency not only “had to operate subject to intense political oversight, its effectiveness was compromised by a weak legal and regulatory framework and its need to obtain political authority, even for technical operations” (Enoch et al. 2001, 15). Nevertheless, the fact that IBRA’s restructuring agenda looked feasible raised hopes that finally something substantive was being done to deal with the country’s banking problems. On the basis of its review of the banks’ financial position, IBRA divided banks that had received substantial liquidity support

in The Asian financial crisis
Natasha Feiner

Prompted by this report, and increased public interest in flight safety following the air crash in Kallang, in the mid-1950s pilots’ hours of work and rest were reviewed by national agencies, and in 1957 a new regulatory framework was introduced to control pilots’ schedules. Based on a model of fatigue that had its roots in the late nineteenth century, the concept of balance was implicit in these regulations from the outset. The notion of fatigue was vague and contested throughout the twentieth century. Attempts to find a biological marker for fatigue

in Balancing the self
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

-fuel industry on the nature and urgency of the climate problem – with a main distinction running between European and US-based companies. It is important to note that there were no breakthroughs in climate science immediately preceding the strategy changes that could have induced or persuaded the industry to change its strategy. Regime pressure In spite of strong opposition from the fossil-fuel lobby, parties to the UNFCCC succeeded in adopting the Kyoto Protocol – a regulatory framework for international GHG regulation that certainly represented a reinforcement of the more

in Climate change and the oil industry
Mark Harvey

competition is, empirically and optimally, into what amounts to a definition. Clusters of interconnected firms are seen to provide optimal competitive conditions for strategic differentiation, with the Porter diamond being used as a strategic tool for achieving the best combination of its four facets: factor inputs, supply chain networks, demand conditions, and regulatory frameworks and infrastructure. In this way, clusters are seen as being capable of going beyond static efficiency competition, beyond cost-reduction competition, and onwards and upwards to optimal forms of

in Market relations and the competitive process
Open Access (free)
Ash dieback and plant biosecurity in Britain
Judith Tsouvalis

health regime encompasses measures like plant inspections at production sites, during the growing season and post-harvest; producer registration; and issuing plant passports. It forms part of international regulatory frameworks, including the International Plant Protection Convention of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary (Plant Health) Agreement. Their prime objective is to foster free trade: in ‘essence, Biosecurity balances enthusiasm for international trade Monstrous

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Graeme Kirkpatrick

, in contests over technology designs the fact that large numbers of people favour one option over another, or attribute some meanings to the exclusion of others, is not in itself sufficient to ensure that those designs are ‘best’. It is entirely conceivable that large numbers of people, perhaps even a majority, operating within a democratic regulatory framework might choose unethical, even immoral technologies. Feenberg supposes that in a more democratic context, space will be created in which people can deliberate on the best course and that this will tend to

in Technical politics