assigned to ‘humanitarian effectiveness’ ( Redfield, 2012 ) and how the sector should relate to a
developing global regulatoryframework that is accompanied by an evolving global
‘techno-legal consciousness’ ( Sandvik, 2018 ), where data protection and privacy are seen as basic
rights ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ).
My objective is to interrogate the ambiguous position of digital humanitarian goods
developed at the interface of the affordances of emergency response contexts, the
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Rackete, Juliano Fiori for inviting me to extend my ideas for another audience, and Karina Horsti for her comments on an earlier version of this paper.
I am using this term here as a shortcut to refer to migrants whose entry to or residence in a country is officially conceptualised to be outside that country’s regulatoryframework.
On Herrou, see, for example, Nossiter (2016) ; on Ersson, see, for example, Pham and Hakim (2019) . For other examples, see Fekete et al. , (2017 , 2019 ).
For the most recent figures, see the online
This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including
the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the
repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the
collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book
argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective
regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply
not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three
brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to
local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior
management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of
the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five
investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure
of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the
introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in
2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and
details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate,
applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of
these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real
estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not
require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and
that Lehman's own methods were flawed.
onward, it was thus permitted to apply for dispensation for cousin marriages. In other words, the pressures exerted and the opposition to the prohibition resulted in some relaxation of the regulatoryframework.
But this did not mean that the national debate on cousin marriages fell silent. The priesthood in particular continued to argue against such alliances. According to the reasoning of the clergy, God's meaning may be ambiguously worded; but the relationships were nevertheless clearly unsound, and for this reason
agency. In fact, the agency not
only “had to operate subject to intense political oversight, its effectiveness
was compromised by a weak legal and regulatoryframework and its need
to obtain political authority, even for technical operations” (Enoch et al.
2001, 15). Nevertheless, the fact that IBRA’s restructuring agenda looked
feasible raised hopes that ﬁnally something substantive was being done to
deal with the country’s banking problems. On the basis of its review of the
banks’ ﬁnancial position, IBRA divided banks that had received substantial
Prompted by this report, and increased public interest in flight safety following the air crash in Kallang, in the mid-1950s pilots’ hours of work and rest were reviewed by national agencies, and in 1957 a new regulatoryframework was introduced to control pilots’ schedules.
Based on a model of fatigue that had its roots in the late nineteenth century, the concept of balance was implicit in these regulations from the outset. The notion of fatigue was vague and contested throughout the twentieth century. Attempts to find a biological marker for fatigue
-fuel industry on the nature and urgency of
the climate problem – with a main distinction running between
European and US-based companies. It is important to note that
there were no breakthroughs in climate science immediately
preceding the strategy changes that could have induced or
persuaded the industry to change its strategy.
In spite of strong opposition from the fossil-fuel lobby, parties to
the UNFCCC succeeded in adopting the Kyoto Protocol – a regulatoryframework for international GHG regulation that certainly
represented a reinforcement of the more
– that an opportunity for change comes about. When single individuals or entire groups challenge social regulatoryframeworks through speech or action, this leads to a questioning of the legitimacy of basic normative values, and the result of that is a renegotiation of the boundaries of the relevant norms. In the process of negotiation that ensues, cultural ideas and ideals which the actors take as their point of departure – and which they perceive to be relevant in the context – are made visible. These negotiations can lead either to the re-establishing of the
competition is, empirically and optimally, into what amounts to a definition. Clusters of interconnected firms are seen to provide optimal competitive conditions for strategic differentiation, with the Porter diamond being
used as a strategic tool for achieving the best combination of its four facets:
factor inputs, supply chain networks, demand conditions, and regulatoryframeworks and infrastructure. In this way, clusters are seen as being capable
of going beyond static efficiency competition, beyond cost-reduction competition, and onwards and upwards to optimal forms of
health regime encompasses measures like plant inspections at production sites, during the growing season and post-harvest; producer
registration; and issuing plant passports. It forms part of international
regulatoryframeworks, including the International Plant Protection
Convention of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations, and the World Trade Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary
(Plant Health) Agreement. Their prime objective is to foster free trade:
in ‘essence, Biosecurity balances enthusiasm for international trade