Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Anne Marie Losonczy

Since the early 1990s, armed actors have invaded territories in the Chocó and Antioquia departments of Colombia, inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indians whose collective rights in these territories had recently been legally recognised. Based on long-term fieldwork among the Emberá Katío, this article examines social, cosmological and ritual alterations and re-organisation around violent death. Following a national policy of post-conflict reparations, public exhumations and identifications of human remains reveal new local modes of understanding and administration. In particular, suicide, hitherto completely unknown to the Emberá, broke out in a multitude of cases, mostly among the youth. Local discourse attributes this phenomenon to the number of stray corpses resulting from the violence, who are transformed into murderous spirits which shamans can no longer control. The analysis focusses on the unprecedented articulation of a renewed eschatology, the intricate effects of an internal political reorganisation and the simultaneous inroad into their space of new forms of armed insurrectional violence. Thus the article will shed light on the emergence of a new transitional moral economy of death among the Emberá.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Patricio Galella

During the Spanish Civil War, extrajudicial executions and disappearances of political opponents took place and their corpses were buried in unregistered mass graves. The absence of an official policy by successive democratic governments aimed at the investigation of these cases, the identification and exhumation of mass graves, together with legal obstacles, have prevented the victims families from obtaining reparation, locating and recovering the human remains. This paper argues that this state of affairs is incompatible with international human rights law and Spain should actively engage in the search for the whereabouts and identification of the bodies with all the available resources.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions
Elise Pape

Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that it raises.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Don’t Ever Wipe Tears Without Gloves as a reparative fantasy
Anu Koivunen

 216 12 THE CARING NATION Don’t Ever Wipe Tears Without Gloves as a reparative fantasy Anu Koi v unen I n February 2013, Swedish author and comedian Jonas Gardell was awarded the prize of ‘Homo of the Year’ by the Swedish Crown Princess Victoria, who was the first ever member of the royal family to attend the annual QX gay gala. An enthusiastic gala audience welcomed her appearance on the stage with cheers and a standing ovation. In her short award speech, Crown Princess Victoria proclaimed a wish: ‘Your message is clear. Straighten your back. Reach out your

in The power of vulnerability
Mobilising affect in feminist, queer and anti-racist media cultures

The power of vulnerability interrogates the new language of vulnerability that has emerged in feminist, queer and anti-racist debates about the production, use and meanings of media. The book investigates the historical legacies and contemporary forms and effects of this language. In today’s media culture, traumatic first-person or group narratives have popular currency, mobilising affect from compassion to rage to gain cultural visibility and political advantage. In this context, vulnerability becomes a kind of capital, a resource or an asset that can and has been appropriated for various groups and purposes in public discourses, activism as well as cultural institutions. Thus, politics of representation translates into politics of affect, and the question about whose vulnerability counts as socially and culturally legible and acknowledged. The contributors of the book examine how vulnerability has become a battleground; how affect and vulnerability have turned into a politicised language for not only addressing but also obscuring asymmetries of power; and how media activism and state policies address so-called vulnerable groups. While the contributors investigate the political potential as well as the constraints of vulnerability for feminist, queer and antiracist criticism, they also focus on the forms of agency and participation vulnerability can offer.

Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Open Access (free)
Mother–daughter relations in Paule Constant’s fiction
Gill Rye

, separation from the mother. In Klein’s thinking, this process of separation involves, on the one hand, a conflict between the love and hate the infant feels for the mother (which gives rise to good and bad phantasmatic mothers) and, on the other, a conflict between both destructive and reparative impulses. Reparative impulses enable infants to rebuild internal phantasies of the good, loved object they feel they have destroyed in hate or anger. It is this ongoing conflict between destruction and reparation that gradually allows the child to separate psychologically from the

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Open Access (free)
Gill Rye and Michael Worton

exemplify the kaleidoscopic proliferation of selves that we are as individuals. When we are traumatised and damaged by unspeakable loss, our psychical selves work to protect us; this work consists, as with Louise Lambrichs’s Hannah, in a shoring up of our psychical defences until we are sufficiently strong to begin the reparative and creative process of mourning. Art and literature are themselves part of that reparative, healing process. Indeed, we would go further and argue that loss is an intrinsic part of artistic creation. It can take the form of sublimation, or, as in

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
The victims' struggle for recognition and recurring genocide memories in Namibia
Vilho Amukwaya Shigwedha

human remains at Freiburg were ongoing, Chief Kuaima Riruako acted swiftly by sensitising the Namibian government to initiate a dialogue with the German government for the return of the skulls to Namibia.17 The motion for the repatriation of the skulls, which Riruako initiated and tabled in the Namibian parliament, was coupled with demands for material and moral reparation payable to the descendants of the genocide victims. Unfortunately, the demands of the affected groups experienced a setback when the Namibian government decided that the skulls must be returned to

in Human remains in society