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In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.

Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison
Tony Boyd

be identified: Democracy as a system of government. Here we can discern two forms of democracy: ‘defensive democracy’ and ‘citizen democracy’/‘republican democracy’; democracy and legitimising government; majority rule and democracy; equality of citizenship rights; public opinion in democracies; the rule of law and democracy. Democracy as a system of government Ancient Greeks, such as Aristotle in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Implications for the party system
David Hanley

-Lavau, 1998, Cambadélis, 1999: 71–83). This is not just due to electoral bipolarisation, which may be as much a reflection as a cause; voters do still tend to split broadly along the left–right axis, as they have done since republican democracy became the norm (Charlot, 1993, Boy and Mayer, 2000). Obviously the values that underpin left and right identities evolve, as do the partisan forces that express them. But on election day, left-wing voters expect to find an adequate supply in party terms for their aspirations. This supply should normally confront a similar supply on

in The French party system
Alex J. Bellamy

assert Croatia’s historic right to statehood within the Yugoslav federation. In the mid-1960s Croatian communists adopted a strategy of opposing everything that was centralist and Yugoslav.160 The main targets for these new Croatian communist leaders were the constitution – which they deemed to be too centralist; democratic centralism – which they believed contradicted the idea of republican democracy; old Partisan communists; and the continuing federal control over foreign currency – the majority of which was earned by Croatia.161 These new leaders began to pose as

in The formation of Croatian national identity