forced to do the same internally for fear of leaks. Lastly, transparency is essential to inform volunteers about the dangers they
face and limit their exposure in high-risk areas. While the code of silence is
supposed to protect aid organisations from future kidnappers as well as legal
and reputationalrisks, it may expose them to the latter. In other words, they
may end up being condemned by the law and public opinion for not having
adequately informed their staff about
A security advisor for Médecins du Monde France between 2012 and 2016,
Emmanuelle Strub recalls her experience and some of the major shifts in risk
management in the NGO sector in recent years. In particular, at a time of global
normalisation of the aid sector, she describes her own efforts to streamline
security management in her organisation: empowering field teams and, in
particular, heads of mission, emphasising the crucial role of obtaining consent
from the various stakeholders in the countries of intervention, and developing
security trainings, crisis-management tools and a risk-management methodology.
Yet, she warns, the trend today, with the advent of the duty-of-care concept, is
to shift the use of risk management from enabling operations and facilitating
access to populations to protecting the organisation from legal or reputational
trend to shift the
use of risk management from enabling operations and facilitating access to populations
to protecting the organisation from legal or reputationalrisks. All the contributions demonstrate that a reliance on international humanitarian law (IHL)
and humanitarian principles to ensure the security of humanitarian teams and projects
might well be unfounded. Rony Brauman offers his own historical perspective, challenging
the idea of humanitarian exceptionalism and the protective function of IHL and
be supported by a clear statement of the risks and risk limits, which are acceptable to the bank and risk monitoring, analytics and metrics.
The expected risk governance structure should include three distinct units: frontline units, independent risk management and internal audit. The frontline unit is any part of the company which is responsible for one or other of the full range of risks from credit risk to liquidity risk to reputationalrisk. The OCC sets out three additional criteria for the frontline units which may either generate revenue
Israeli security experience as an international brand
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Bourdieu, P., 2002. ‘The
Forms of Capital’, in N. Biggart, ed., Readings in Economic
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Buzan, B., O. Wæver, and J. De
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