Fabrice Weissman

forced to do the same internally for fear of leaks. Lastly, transparency is essential to inform volunteers about the dangers they face and limit their exposure in high-risk areas. While the code of silence is supposed to protect aid organisations from future kidnappers as well as legal and reputational risks, it may expose them to the latter. In other words, they may end up being condemned by the law and public opinion for not having adequately informed their staff about

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

A security advisor for Médecins du Monde France between 2012 and 2016, Emmanuelle Strub recalls her experience and some of the major shifts in risk management in the NGO sector in recent years. In particular, at a time of global normalisation of the aid sector, she describes her own efforts to streamline security management in her organisation: empowering field teams and, in particular, heads of mission, emphasising the crucial role of obtaining consent from the various stakeholders in the countries of intervention, and developing security trainings, crisis-management tools and a risk-management methodology. Yet, she warns, the trend today, with the advent of the duty-of-care concept, is to shift the use of risk management from enabling operations and facilitating access to populations to protecting the organisation from legal or reputational risks.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

trend to shift the use of risk management from enabling operations and facilitating access to populations to protecting the organisation from legal or reputational risks. All the contributions demonstrate that a reliance on international humanitarian law (IHL) and humanitarian principles to ensure the security of humanitarian teams and projects might well be unfounded. Rony Brauman offers his own historical perspective, challenging the idea of humanitarian exceptionalism and the protective function of IHL and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

be supported by a clear statement of the risks and risk limits, which are acceptable to the bank and risk monitoring, analytics and metrics. The expected risk governance structure should include three distinct units: frontline units, independent risk management and internal audit. The frontline unit is any part of the company which is responsible for one or other of the full range of risks from credit risk to liquidity risk to reputational risk. The OCC sets out three additional criteria for the frontline units which may either generate revenue

in Lehman Brothers
Israeli security experience as an international brand
Erella Grassiani

., 1998. Mastering Soldiers , New York: Berghahn. Bourdieu, P., 2002. ‘The Forms of Capital’, in N. Biggart, ed., Readings in Economic Sociology , Oxford: Blackwell. Buzan, B., O. Wæver, and J. De Wilde, 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis , Boulder, CO: Rienner. Coaffee, J. and P. Rogers, 2008. ‘Reputational Risk

in Security/ Mobility