kidnappers as well as legal and reputational risks, it may expose them to the latter. In other words, they may end up being condemned by the law and public opinion for not having adequately informed their staff about the dangers confronting them or doing everything possible to limit the risks, beginning with documenting and learning lessons from their experiences. By keeping silent about current or past cases, humanitarian organisations are also breaking their bond of trust with their volunteers – and even, in MSF’s case, violating their own charter, which states that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

A security advisor for Médecins du Monde France between 2012 and 2016, Emmanuelle Strub recalls her experience and some of the major shifts in risk management in the NGO sector in recent years. In particular, at a time of global normalisation of the aid sector, she describes her own efforts to streamline security management in her organisation: empowering field teams and, in particular, heads of mission, emphasising the crucial role of obtaining consent from the various stakeholders in the countries of intervention, and developing security trainings, crisis-management tools and a risk-management methodology. Yet, she warns, the trend today, with the advent of the duty-of-care concept, is to shift the use of risk management from enabling operations and facilitating access to populations to protecting the organisation from legal or reputational risks.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

enabling operations and facilitating access to populations to protecting the organisation from legal or reputational risks. All the contributions demonstrate that a reliance on international humanitarian law (IHL) and humanitarian principles to ensure the security of humanitarian teams and projects might well be unfounded. Rony Brauman offers his own historical perspective, challenging the idea of humanitarian exceptionalism and the protective function of IHL and principles. The last article exemplifies the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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be supported by a clear statement of the risks and risk limits, which are acceptable to the bank and risk monitoring, analytics and metrics. The expected risk governance structure should include three distinct units: frontline units, independent risk management and internal audit. The frontline unit is any part of the company which is responsible for one or other of the full range of risks from credit risk to liquidity risk to reputational risk. The OCC sets out three additional criteria for the frontline units which may either generate revenue

in Lehman Brothers
Israeli security experience as an international brand

., 1998. Mastering Soldiers , New York: Berghahn. Bourdieu, P., 2002. ‘The Forms of Capital’, in N. Biggart, ed., Readings in Economic Sociology , Oxford: Blackwell. Buzan, B., O. Wæver, and J. De Wilde, 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis , Boulder, CO: Rienner. Coaffee, J. and P. Rogers, 2008. ‘Reputational Risk

in Security/ Mobility