GP involvement, for instance, emerged in relation to pre-symptomatic disease and prevention, areas of considerable interest to some GPs, especially those connected with academic institutions. By the early 1970s, poor-quality evidence and cost concerns had seen such claims superseded, with GP care entangled in long-held discussions about the unique social, psychological, and clinical skills of GPs. Finally, appeals to preventive risk management returned alongside the themes of practice organisation in the 1980s and 1990s, as bodies like the Royal College of General

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History Security-risk management has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM), as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War. However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure, together with a trend for humanitarian organisations to shift from working on the periphery of conflicts to the heart of them. Yugoslavia, Chechnya

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

’, the idea that aid workers should be protected at all times and in all places by virtue of the uniqueness of their function and moral standing. In the same year, arguably the apex of the heroisation of humanitarian workers, the UN launched the #HumanitarianHero campaign on 19 August to celebrate World Humanitarian Day ( Neuman, 2017 ). MSF published a multi-author review of its experience in risk management in 2016 ( Neuman and Weissman, 2016 ). In particular, the authors criticised humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

Foley, who was executed by the IS in Syria on 18 August 2014, the US government revised its policy. It said families trying everything possible to save a loved one from a terrorist organisation like the IS would not be prosecuted ( Dreazen and Jakes, 2015 ). Therefore, while it is advisable to discuss previous cases with discretion, nothing justifies maintaining an information blackout, especially since secrecy hinders improvements to kidnapping prevention and risk management. Appeal for a Minimum Level of Transparency (Rather than Complete Transparency) Rachel Briggs

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

–95 ’, International Organization , 57 : 4 , 661 – 94 . doi: 10.1017/S002081830357401X . Collinson , S. and Duffield , M. ( 2013 ), Paradoxes of Presence: Risk Management and Aid Culture in Challenging Environments . London : Humanitarian Policy Group/Overseas Development Institute . Cutts , M. and Dingle , A. ( 1995 ), Safety First: Protecting NGO Employees Who Work in Areas of Conflict . London : Save the Children . DG ECHO . ( 2006 ), NGO Security Collaboration Guide . Brussels : Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

Risk Management ( London : Hurst and Co ). Powell , C. ( 2001 ), ‘Remarks to the National Foreign Policy Conference for Leaders of Nongovernmental Organizations’ , 26 October , US Department of State , Washington, DC , https://avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/powell_brief31.asp (accessed 17 July 2019) . Roberts , A. ( 2010 ), ‘Lives and Statistics: Are 90% of War Victims Civilians?’ , Survival , 52 : 3 , 115 – 36 , https://weblearn.ox.ac.uk/access/content/user/1044/Survival_Jun-Jul_2010_-_AR_on_lives___statistics_-_non-printable.pdf (accessed 27 June 2019

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

Facilities in Armed Conflict ’, Lancet , 375 , 329 – 40 . United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) ( 2014 ), ‘ Conflict in South Sudan, A Human Rights Report ’, 8 May 2014, https://unmiss.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/unmiss_conflict_in_south_sudan_-_a_human_rights_report.pdf (accessed 25 July 2018) . Weissman , F. ( 2016 ), ‘ Violence against Aid Workers: The Meaning of Measuring ’, in Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds), Saving Lives and Staying Alive. Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst and Co ), pp. 55 – 66 .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

operationally) its strategy to Palestinians on the local level. In this context, significant risks are being borne both by those Palestinians who rely on UNRWA-provided services and by UNRWA’s Palestinian employees. Nonetheless, these impacts continue to be erased from view by a contract and risk-management culture that maintains the primacy of international (read: non-Palestinian) actors and ideological priorities. In the context of UNRWA’s institutional adaptation to long-standing financial crises, a push for cost-efficiency and the desire to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

, TriMont. The valuations were Lehman's own, and were presented as being marked to market. Risk management and valuations are inevitably closely linked, especially as Lehman used pricing models to ‘value, aggregate and hedge risk positions’. These ‘pricing models produce valuations and risk-factor sensitivities … which are fed into the risk models used by the Global Risk Management Division.’ 2 Lehman's Principal Transactions Group (PTG) was responsible for valuing the company's investments in real estate development or improvement projects, generally

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9 Monitoring Value Corporate governance after 2002 The purpose of this chapter is to consider who should have been responsible for keeping an eye on the value of assets in which Lehman Brothers chose to invest heavily, and on its risk management procedures. Lehman's board, as any other board, would have been expected to monitor the company in accordance with corporate governance requirements. The first question therefore is: what exactly was the Lehman board expected, indeed, required to do. The other two questions are

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