Violence and the Great Turkish War in the work of Romeyn de Hooghe
Michel van Duijnen

10 ‘Sacrificed to the madness of the bloodthirsty sabre’: violence and the Great Turkish War in the work of Romeyn de Hooghe Michel van Duijnen In early modern Christian Europe, ‘the Turk’ played an important role in the imagination of violence. With the successful European campaigns of the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century, ‘Turks’ came increasingly to be seen as warriors that were equally cruel and formidable.1 Sixteenth-century German propaganda prints would portray Turkish raiders as beasts that impaled children on lances, collected trophy heads, and

in A global history of early modern violence
Marie Daugey

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, in the Kabye country, some heads of enemies – those of men foreign to the group – were buried in a mound of earth referred to as hude, meaning ‘manure’. In each locality, this mound is situated inside a wooded sanctuary where the spirit of the mythical founding ancestor resides. In order to understand this practice, this article examines how it fitted within the overall logic of the male initiation cycle, contextualising it in relation to past and present practices. Because it was a highly ambivalent element of the bush, the head of an enemy renewed the generative power of this original ‘manure’ prodigiously, so as to ensure the group’s survival in their land. The burial of the heads of strangers appears to be an initiatory variant of other forms of mastery of the ambivalence of wild forces, entrusted in other African societies to the chief and his waste heap.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Black Women as Surrogates of Liberation in James Baldwin’s If Beale Street Could Talk
Marquita R. Smith

This essay analyzes how James Baldwin’s late novel If Beale Street Could Talk represents Black women’s care work in the face of social death as an example of how Black women act as surrogates for Black liberation giving birth to a new world and possibilities of freedom for Black (male) people. Within the politics of Black nationalism, Black women were affective workers playing a vital role in the (re)creation of heteronormative family structures that formed the basis of Black liberation cohered by a belief in the power of patriarchy to make way for communal freedom. This essay demonstrates how Beale Street’s imagining of freedom centers not on what Black women do to support themselves or each other, but on the needs of the community at large, with embodied sacrifice as a presumed condition of such liberation.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

claim that violence results from a lack of respect for the sanctity of life is perhaps most indicative of a mythological history of violence. Girard was the most incisive thinker on this history, showing that all social orders are born of some original traumatic sacrificial act ( Girard, 2005 ). But this sacrifice is nothing to be lamented. It becomes the regulatory taboo, which, giving sacred meaning to life, means that we have a much better grasp on its metaphysical purpose. The sacrificial act is loaded with moral and political symbolism, presenting before us what

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

the genocide. In Sacrifice as Terror , Christopher Taylor explores the logic of sexual violence within Rwandan cultural conceptions of Tutsi beauty and seductiveness ( Taylor, 1999 ). Both Jennie Burnet’s Genocide Lives in Us and Marie Berry’s War, Women, and Power are focused primarily on women in post-genocide Rwanda, but both nevertheless provide greater detail on the experience of women in the genocide that remains consistent with Des Forges’ analysis ( Berry, 2018 ; Burnet, 2013 ). In a series of publications, Philip Verwimp applies the tools of economics

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond
Catia Gregoratti

premised on self-responsibilisation, self-sacrifice and work. Methodological Approach: What Is the Problem of the Refugee Woman Represented to Be? Our feminist postcolonial critique of representations of refugee women within the IKEA and the Jordan River Foundations and RefuSHE initiatives rests on Carol Bacchi’s poststructural analytical framework ‘What is the Problem Represented to Be?’(WPR) ( Bacchi, 1999 , 2005 , 2009a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

attend to the expectations of various audiences. Along these lines, one theme that could have been given more attention in the collection is various depictions of the heroic humanitarian or rescuer imagery, along with tropes of sacrifice and even martyrdom (see Neuman, 2017 ). Heerten’s book touches on this theme in his account of the ‘white male Westerners’ that typically dominate such portrayals (2017, 158–67). Iconic Images

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

to the political costs involved (sacrificing hostages) and the low, long-term chances of success. For a bibliographic review and an analysis based on mathematical game-theory models to demonstrate that a no-negotiations policy has a poor chance of succeeding, see Bapat (2006 : 213–29) and Lapan and Sandler (1988 : 16–21). 8 ‘Rather than simply looking at the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James
Joseph Grace Kasereka
, and
Shelley Lees

principal was not respected, especially if the vaccine is not proved efficient … that would mean they were in the process of sacrificing peoples’ lives when they could have helped them.’ 3 Civil society groups were also uneasy about introducing another trial with potential risks when a vaccine already existed. One activist asked during an interview: Was it not the responsibility of the donor or pharmaceutical company to ensure that there was enough of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks
Rob Grace

precise, and hence, could be less powerful. Conversely, involving fewer organisations could lead to a more forceful statement but sacrifices the power that could result from speaking with a more expansive, collective voice. Donor dynamics further complicate these issues. For NGOs reliant on donor funds from the same states that might be targets of advocacy, it can be harder to take a forceful stance because these NGOs might perceive that they lack, as one interviewee commented, ‘the ability, or the comfort level, to really speak out’, except in ways that are ‘more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs