A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
Sanitation is entangled with material infrastructure, policy landscapes and everyday practices, encompassing underpinning value, belief and norm systems. In this chapter, I argue that sanitation must be studied as more than an engineered system in order to design targeted interventions towards more sustainable futures. I reflect on the ways in which ideals of the networked city have perpetuated urban governance, planning and design and look at the ways in which they are embedded within China’s ongoing Toilet Revolution. I then propose that practice theory, in
Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
where many families incorporated tiny convenience stores (known as sari-sari stores) into the front facade of their homes. Others included backyard gardening and livestock ( Flinn and Echegaray, 2016 ).
Adequate and appropriate bathrooms, toilets and kitchens improve health through better sanitation and the removal of smoke. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 3.4 million people die each year from waterborne disease, the single most deadly cause of death by disease. 1.3 million die prematurely from acute lower respiratory infections caused by indoor
DPRK since 1995, with over 230 groups working in the shared spaces for collaboration where regime and humanitarian interests overlap, e.g. boosting agricultural capacity ( Zadeh-Cummings, 2019 ).
Food security has continued to elude the DPRK. The country has struggled to provide adequate nutrition, healthcare, disaster prevention and recovery, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities for its citizens. The Glossary of Humanitarian Terms ( ReliefWeb 2008 : 21) defines an emergency as ‘a sudden and usually unforeseen event that calls for immediate
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
The meeting captured the community’s priorities and conveyed the sense
that the government needed to be held accountable for the welfare of local
populations even in the Ebola emergency. District 6 inhabitants’
principal issue was sanitation and waste-water management, as sewage from the
stadium bathrooms drained directly into the neighbouring communities. Residents
were also worried about the economic impact of opening an ETU inside the
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and
Government of India
( 2018 ), Report 584: National Sample Survey
Office Report on Drinking Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Housing Condition:
NSS 76th Round, July 2018–December 2018 , mospi.nic.in/recent-reports (accessed
has spawned a narcissistic culture of bodily fitness, healthy lifestyles and making good
choices, while in the South, a post-humanitarian ethic has disaggregated, medicalised and
reduced precarity to the basic nutritional, energy, health, sanitation, education, financial and
psychic requirements needed to maintain bodily functioning ( Jaspars, 2015 ). Everywhere, resilience, or the injunction to endlessly adapt before
unmediated market and environmental forces, has become the zeitgeist of late-modernity ( Evans and Reid, 2014 ).
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas
– 2028 , doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60901-1 .
WHO ( 2016 ), An Estimated 12.6 Million Deaths Each Year Are
Attributable to Unhealthy Environments , www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2016/deaths-attributable-to-unhealthy-environments/en/
(accessed 25 October 2016) .
WHO ( 2017 ), Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017
A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), gender-based violence (GBV), disability and older-age inclusion – or to systemic humanitarian innovation ‘problems’, such as localisation and scale. Thematic gaps for innovation to address are identified through robust gap analyses, problem exploration ‘deep dives’ and challenge prioritisation exercises, engaging a wide range of stakeholders and working together with experts in these areas. We support more complex, cross-sector challenges (for example, humanitarian inclusion in WASH), seek to address systemic as well as operational aspects of
school principals and teachers, guards and sanitation laborers, social and psychosocial
workers, administrative and support staff: be at your duty stations to serve the community with
the same dedication and commitment that you have always shown. This is a moment for internal
cohesion and solidarity. Times are very critical but we will do our utmost to protect you.
( Krähenbühl, 2018b )
In addition to these full-time employees, due to the precarious nature of UNRWA’s
budget since its inception in the 1950s, UNRWA has