Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as
shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies.
That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to
death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen
comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the
mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints
pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the
secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its
disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give
birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.
The Second World War and the Balkan Historikerstreit
David Bruce MacDonald
An intriguing part of the propaganda campaign has been an attempt to equate the
supposed victimization of present-day Serbs with that of the Holocaust Jews. In
promoting the image of Serbian spiritual kinship with the Jews as fellow victims,
Belgrade has concealed Serb willingness to collaborate with the Nazis in the extermination of Serbia’s Jews. (Philip Cohen, Serbia’s SecretWar)
HROUGHOUT THE S ERBIAN –C ROATIAN conflict, the comparative genocide
debate was of particular importance. For both countries, the success of
nationalist regimes depended on
’s comment ‘terrorism is theater’ is quoted in Hoffman, Inside
Terrorism, p. 38.
4 See Anthony Lake, Six Nightmares (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), esp. pp. 56–7
where he discusses the role of Richard Clarke in sounding the warnings and
5 Martin Bright, Antony Barnett, Burhan Wazir, Tony Thompson and Peter
Beaumont in London; Stuart Jeffries in Paris; Ed Vulliamy in Washington; Kate
Connolly in Berlin; Giles Tremlett in Madrid; Rory Carroll in Rome, ‘The SecretWar: Part 1’, Observer, 30 September 2001.
6 David Bamber, Chris Hastings and Rajeev Syal
Serbian and Croatian propaganda. This
involves charting how different periods of history have been revised to make a
nation’s history one of constant danger, defeat, and martyrdom.
There have been several attempts to understand the nature of Serbian
propaganda. Some examples of Serbian propaganda analysis include
Branimir Anzulović’s Heavenly Serbia, Anto Knezević’s Analysis of Serbian
Propaganda, and Philip Cohen’s Serbia’s SecretWar. Of these, only Anzulović’s
analysis does not seem to advance an overtly pro-Croatian viewpoint.
Whatever the motivations of these
‘Numbers games’ and ‘holocausts’ at Jasenovac and Bleiburg
David Bruce MacDonald
, Serbia’s SecretWar: Propoganda and the Deceit of History (College Station,
TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1996) pp. 6–7.
Ibid. p. xxii.
Ibid. pp. xxii–xxiii.
Mislav Jezić advanced the same position. While describing, ‘many tens of thousands
Jews, Gypsies, Serbs and Croats’ executed at Jasenovac, the greater crime, he posited,
was at Bleiburg, where the outcome of the massacre indicated that the Serbs would,
‘continue in a less obvious manner following their bloody greater-Serbian ideology’:
Jezić, ‘Problems of Understanding XXth Century History of Croatia’.
, Serbia’s SecretWar: Propaganda and the Deceit of History (College Station,
TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1996) p. 117.
52 Ibid. p. 199.
53 Laslo Sekelj, ‘Antisemitism and Jewish Identity in Serbia After the 1991 Collapse of the
Yugoslav State’, in Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism, 1997 acta no. 12
(Jerusalem: The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism/
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1997) p. 1.
54 Florence Hamish Levinsohn, Belgrade: Among the Serbs (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994)
55 Ibid. p. 251.
56 Quoted in Yelen
322–66; Robert Gates, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider’s Story of Five Presidents
and how they won the Cold War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), p. 49.
230 John Prados, Presidents’ SecretWars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations From World
War II Through The Persian Gulf (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996, revised edition), pp. 326–
56; Zelizer, Arsenal of Democracy, pp. 259–72; Cannon, Time and Chance, pp. 405–8;
Randall B. Woods, Shadow Warrior: William Egan Colby and the CIA (New York: Basic
Books, 2013), pp. 437−63.
231 Van Atta, Melvin Laird, pp. 483