Open Access (free)
The processing of remains in Catholic circles
Francesca Sbardella

In the Catholic areas of Europe, the human remains (both their bones and the fabrics they touched) of persons considered to have been exceptional are usually stored for transformation into relics. The production and the reproduction of the object-relic takes place within monasteries and is carried out firstly on the material level. In this article I intend to present in detail, from an anthropological standpoint, the practices used to process such remains, the role of the social actors involved and the political-ecclesiastical dynamics connected with them. Owing to obvious difficulties in accessing enclosed communities, such practices are usually overlooked in historiographical and ethno-anthropological analyses, while they should instead be considered the most important moment in the lengthy process intended to give form and meaning to remains, with a view to their exhibition and use in ritual.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

, the Redipuglia Shrine. This is one of the ­largest First World War memorials in Europe, comparable only to the Douaumont Ossuary near Verdun, or to the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The mausoleum is located near the Carso Front, on a hill that was highly contested during the conflict, and was erected in 1938 by the Fascist regime. An entire side of the hill was excavated to receive the corpses of 100,187 soldiers in twenty-​two terraced steps. Only 39,857 of these soldiers are known. At the bottom of the steps are the tombs of the generals. The

in Human remains in society

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Linda Maynard

, on a shrine inside the church. Of the 1,010 names recorded on the ten bronze plaques on the Lancaster war memorial, there are fifty-seven pairs of brothers, five instances of three brothers and one of four. Within this memorial to communal morning, familial loss and sacrifice is highlighted by the bracketing of names with the word ‘BROTHERS’ ( Figure 7 ). The four mothers and widows who suffered the greatest losses were invited to the unveiling ceremony in 1924. These included Annie Butterworth, who lost four sons, her husband, James, reportedly having died from a

in Brothers in the Great War
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

Press, 1984), pp. 161–89, seeks a wider canvas. For twelfth-century England see S. K. Elkins, Holy Women of Twelfth-century England (Chapel Hill NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1988); for anchoresses see A. K. Warren, ‘The nun as anchoress: England, 1100–1500’, in J. A. Nichols and L. Thomas Shank (eds), Distant Echoes: Medieval Religious Women, I, Distant Echoes (Kalamazoo MI: Cistercian Publications, 1984), pp. 197–212. For the functions of a twelfth-century saint see H. Mayr-Harting, ‘Functions of a twelfth-century shrine: the miracles of St

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
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Language, lies and the crisis of representation in Such a Long Journey
Peter Morey

. As Michael Ryan has written: what we take to be real does not exist prior to simulation; rather it is simulated into being and lent ontological reality by virtue of acts of representation, masquerade, and posturing that are themselves more prior, fundamental, generative (of the real). Reality is the successful repression of these processes.31 [emphasis added] Upon the wall’s destruction, the pavement artist is undeterred. He resumes his travels, responding to Gustad’s enquiry as to where he will go: ‘In a world where roadside latrines becomes temples and shrines

in Rohinton Mistry
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Ben Okri, Chenjerai Hove, Dambudzo Marechera
Elleke Boehmer

Tutuola and, later, Wole Soyinka.4 Okri’s two collections of short stories, Incidents at the Shrine (1986) and Stars of the New Curfew (1988), and his cyclical novel The Famished Road (1991), the first in a trilogy completed in 1998, dramatise the elaborate, nightmarish displays BOEHMER Makeup 142 3/22/05 2:55 PM Page 142 John's G5:Users:john:Public:John's Mac: John's Job Stories of women that are part of quotidian existence in the African postcolonial nation.5 His landscapes, in particular the road walked by the abiku or spirit child in The Famished Road, are

in Stories of women
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic
Éva Pócs

achieve the recovery of a person ‘done in’, to ask for blessing upon the restoration of family peace and, in general, the maintenance of peace and prosperity – though they could also receive these services from the Hungarian and Roman Catholic priests, and at the nearby shrine of Csíkszentdomokos. From the marriage of a daughter to the successful future of the family, from a peaceful and easy death to the recovery of stolen

in Witchcraft Continued
Interpreting deposition in the bog
Melanie Giles

of life, to be placed beyond the human ‘grip’, as Fontijn ( 2020 : 58) puts it. The examples that follow are drawn explicitly from bog sites, yet of course these were situated within other wetland deposits from rivers, lakes and springs, as well as dryland deposits in pits, ditches and caves. These comparative examples are well reviewed in Aldhouse-Green ( 2002 ), as are the shrines and sanctuaries of late Iron Age/early Roman Britain and Gaul. However, the purpose of this chapter is to focus more explicitly on the bog as a distinctive realm of deposition. The

in Bog bodies