Essays in popular romance
Editor: Nicola McDonald

This collection and the romances it investigates are crucial to our understanding of the aesthetics of medieval narrative and to the ideologies of gender and sexuality, race, religion, political formations, social class, ethics, morality and national identity with which those narratives emerge.

Mark Tomlinson and Andrew McMeekin

-demographic variables including social class, household composition, etc., were gathered. The interviewees were traced and re-interviewed seven years later (referred to as the ‘follow-up survey’) and the same questions were repeated. Thus we have similar data from two points in time for the same people. However, a number of respondents from the first wave could not be traced or had died. Thus the sample size of the follow-up survey is reduced from 9,003 to 5,352. The influence of social class We have argued that factors such as social class will be significant determinants of

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

5 Racing culture: the racecourse and racecourse life hile people could not avoid having views on racing only a minority actually attended race-meetings, and it is to the cultural and social life of the racegoing public that we now turn. The anticipatory thrill of travel was important, and a first section deals briefly with changes in travel over the period. A following more substantial section deals with social relationships, behaviour and attendance in relation to social class and gender. Changes and continuities in the comfort and facilities of the course, and

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

sport which had real support among all social classes’, and because its internationals ‘held more significance’.4 McKibbin’s treatment of social classes and cultures is usually subtle and persuasive. Here his analysis is less sure. It ignores the many racegoers drawn to racing by a passion and appreciation for those highly-strung equine aristocrats, thoroughbred horses, those enjoying the races but not the betting, and those going for social reasons, the enthusiastic fans and racing addicts drawn from all classes which cultural anthropologists have shown are still

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Staging class aboard the omnibus
Masha Belenky

, sinon sur les coussins du box intérieur. Octave Uzanne 1 Writing at the turn of the century, Octave Uzanne paints an idealised picture of the omnibus interior, one where people from all walks of life and diverse social classes happily commingle and coexist in harmony, cheerfully sharing the omnibus bench with one another. Yet this romanticised and nostalgic vision of the omnibus as a ‘perfect image of democracy and fraternity’ stands in opposition to many of its textual and visual representations throughout the nineteenth century. As a unique space of class

in Engine of modernity
Robert Andersen and Jocelyn A. J. Evans

cleavages of social class and religion since the nineteenth century, producing strong left–right polarisation. In keeping with the general pattern found in predominantly Catholic countries, left voting had traditionally been broader than just the working-class, encompassing a secular and often overtly anti-clerical component composed of public sector employees and educators. Thus, the French left had always played host to a middle-class voter with a socially liberal value system focused upon individual equality and enlightened rationalism, as well as to the lower

in The French party system
Open Access (free)
Nicola McDonald

newly discovered and celebrated forms of classical poetry. As such they are more indicative of post-medieval prejudice, about everything from social class to Catholicism, than anything inherent in the medieval genre. And it is precisely these inherited distinctions that we, informed by the insights of post-structuralist thought, have learned to interrogate. Yet, popular romance has hardly benefited from the collapse of the traditional hierarchies of aesthetic (and with it academic) judgement. There must be many reasons why. The slowness with which medieval English

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Open Access (free)
The 1970 general election
Steven Fielding

’s announcement regarding equal pay helped it retain the loyalties of women in work, while those whose main concern was with consumption were less impressed. Overall, however, prices rather than wages – that is, the domestic sphere rather than the workplace – continued to dominate most women’s horizons. Defeat only increased enthusiasm at Transport House for organisational change. From seventy-one in 1970, the number of women’s councils fielding ch 9.P65 224 10/10/03, 12:37 225 Conclusion Table 9.2 Women and Labour voting, by social class and age, 1964–70 Category 1964

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Kevin Hickson

revolution. The owners constituted a powerful social class in the absence of a welfare state and with only limited government intervention in the economy and the lack of strong trade union movements. For Marx, the owners of the means of production determined the distribution of wealth and income. On this view, issues of distribution cannot be separated from the structure of production and so the only possibility of creating a fairer society is to foster conditions for a revolution in which private property ownership would be terminated.2 M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 217 3

in In search of social democracy