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Bill Jordan

as they appear at first sight to be. This chapter traces the transition from welfare to social exclusion sketched above, and the various theoretical responses it has elicited. 1 Communities of choice The idea that political justice should deal in issues about the distribution of roles and resources, presupposes a political community which corresponds to an economic system for production and exchange

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)

All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. Justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. This book explores two approaches to rights: the interest-based (IB) approach, and the obligation-based or Kantian view. Both are shown to offer coherent justifications that can avoid turning all political concerns into a matter of rights. The concept of social justice emerged in both at the start of the twentieth century, and justified institutions for the democratic modification for market outcomes, on utilitarian, maximin or common good grounds. The book explores whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. It discusses national ties and how they are supposed to act as glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. The book also explores the link between the weakening of states and this change in criminal policies, and outlines their implications for individual rights. Theorists have used the idea of social exclusion to advocate an approach to social justice that sees increased labour-market participation as the key to equal to citizenship. The contemporary understandings of the public-private distinction and feminist critiques of these are also examined.

Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

their communication needs during forced displacement, it was of little value in Australia, where technology literacy has been traditionally disregarded in favour of digital literacy – that is, the ability to use software tools, or, as Leung writes, ‘the ways in which digital literacy have been defined sets up the kind of social exclusion it purports to address’ (p. 90). In chapter 9, the first of the fourth part of the book (‘Practices and Principles’), Leung presents the difference between

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

, broken families, livelihoods lost, economies destroyed. Loss, pain, fear and hate predominate and social exclusion, poverty and miscommunication reign over generations. ( Physicians for Human Rights, 1998 ) Objective and Methodology The study aims to investigate scale and patterns of attacks on healthcare during the Syrian conflict as a form of extreme violence. It aims, also, to contextualise these attacks through investigating their time of occurrence, consequences and potential perpetrators. This is to allow us to draw conclusions on whether these attacks had

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Eunice Goes

subplot deals with the link between ideas on community and socialism. The third subplot concerns the narrative on social exclusion–social inclusion, which sheds light on New Labour’s approach to poverty and social inequalities. The final section assesses the impact of these ideas on New Labour’s ideology and argues that New Labour did not endorse communitarianism, but simply used

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Welfare reform and the ‘Third Way’ politics of New Labour and the New Democrats
Stephen Driver

on social exclusion and pushing ‘work first’ can sustain a commitment to egalitarian social democratic values, something on which Goes (see chapter 6 ) casts doubt. While I acknowledge the continuities between Labour and Conservative approaches to welfare reform, I argue that there are important social democratic elements in New Labour policy which cast doubt on a

in The Third Way and beyond
Cardboard publishers in Latin America
Lucy Bell

) to this day. The term cartonera therefore binds together the human and nonhuman, encompassing the complexity of a publishing movement connected not only with cardboard materials and cartonero workers, but also with broader socio-economic contexts of unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. This semantic ambiguity is attested by the different names taken on by cardboard publishing projects in Portuguesespeaking countries: whereas in Mozambique Kutsemba Cartão (Kutsemba Cardboard) identifies with the cardboard material itself, in Brazil, Dulcinéia Catadora and

in Literature and sustainability
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

places for every 3-year old to be available for all parents who needed it. The existence of such places for children is designed to help more parents with child-care responsibilities to seek employment. ● ● ● ● ● ● Despite the measures and Brown’s claim that he has taken hundreds of thousands of children out of poverty, his aim to eradicate the problem altogether is still very far off. Low wages and areas of high unemployment stubbornly refuse to go away and these may have to be the subject of future policies. social exclusion Part of New Labour philosophy. It

in Understanding British and European political issues
Sarah Hale, Will Leggett, and Luke Martell

the private sector among the politicians of the Third Way. Welfare reform has been central to the Third Way in both the USA and UK. Stephen Driver asks whether New Labour’s US-influenced welfare reforms involve a continuation of the New Right, rather than a Third Way break from them. Can an approach based on social exclusion and ‘work first

in The Third Way and beyond
The PRIA experience
Mandakini Pant

citizens the world over are experiencing complex challenges of exclusion and alienation. Social exclusion involves systematic and pervasive socioeconomic, political and cultural discriminations and injustices. Dominant power groups debase, dissociate, devalue and disparage the poor and marginalized social groups. In India, among social groups, one could mention low castes, women, racial, ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities. Social exclusion: (a) limits their access from the resources and opportunities to improve life chances; (b) denies them the right over their

in Knowledge, democracy and action