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From the Global to the Local

potential disappearance continue to pervade Palestinian refugees’ experiences and perceptions of UNRWA as the remaining UN agency responsible for Palestinians. UNRWA’s initial three-year mandate as a ‘relief and works’ agency supporting Palestinian refugees residing within its five areas of operation has been renewed for the past seventy years. While continuing to provide ‘works’ and ‘services’ to Palestinian refugees – including in the fields of health, social services, education, microfinance and direct cash emergency programmes – its budget

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A history of child development in Britain

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Authority Social Service Act, and the Education (Handicapped Children) Act 1970 were the key pieces of legislation that would begin to topple the Tavistock hegemony. These Acts helped to build new models for understanding children’s rights to relationships and new models of social welfare that challenged the ideology of organising child welfare services with the aim of preventing

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)

different services. In Britain, where the system is broad based, there is a large number of services included in the term. These are: The provision of personal health services, including medical research. These are centrally organised. Public health provision such as protection from virulent diseases, mass inoculation, services for the unborn child and young infants, provided by local authorities. Social services at a local government level. These deal with such issues as protection of children, including orphans, family support, care of the elderly at home and support

in Understanding British and European political issues
A view from below

a platform on which power and resistance operate. Ambiguities are therefore not a reason to deny the existence of resistance, but the space to explore between consent and opposition. This is particularly useful to bear in mind in a context where the statemaking process is not characterised as aiming towards turning citizens into producing and consuming taxpayers. Yet, the ways in which the population are ignored, expelled from their lands, contained and repressed if perceived to be rebellious, or used in order to provide social services, represent continuities and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

structured along four axes: • health, nutrition and quality of life; • technology, production and environment; • cultural processes of learning and human rights; • social strategies, public policies and power relations. Academically, the Human Development group works with a variety of students from undergraduate, postgraduate and professional programmes. Mexican law mandates that all university students engage in ‘social service’. This translates into six-month to one-year placements where students are expected to use their academic knowledge and professional skills

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

state in providing welfare and social services that embraced education and health? This chapter argues that essential to that process was the emergence from the 1930s of a conception of a ‘mission sector’ which emerged within both missionary organisations and the colonial state, with implications for both that would last beyond the end of the colonial period in the country

in Beyond the state

154 Creative survival as subversion channels of re-appropriation. This re-appropriation provokes denial of extractive claims and facilitates the mitigation of the effects of domination. Within these practices of survival there are different practices and grades in the visibility of intent. For instance, while tax evasion or defending landownership through armed groups could be seen as a more direct claim-regarding form of resistance, non-violent self-help tactics of land seizure, negotiating the terms of military rule and social service and infrastructure provision

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

to establish competing authorities (or contracted commercial providers) for each of the social services. 8 In this new environment, voting with the feet – by moving to another jurisdiction – becomes the public choice equivalent of market preference and consumer sovereignty. The declared aim of these approaches has been to hold down taxation and ‘tame the Leviathan’ of central government, 9 but their effects have been

in Political concepts

. 96 Bristol Charity Organization Society, Report for 1907 , pp. 4–6. 97 Ibid. ; Bristol Charity Organization Society, Report for 1908 , p. 20; Bristol Civic League, Report for 1914 , p. 32; Bristol Civic League for Social Services, Report

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48