Socialethos and the dynamics
‘The difficulty with toleration’, writes Bernard Williams, ‘is that it seems to
be at once necessary and impossible.’1 Toleration is necessary if groups with
fundamentally different and conflicting values and beliefs are to live in peace
together, but, so it is said, prima facie impossible under such circumstances.
Why so? The idea of toleration only seems appropriate when a conflict of
values or beliefs goes so deep that groups may think that ‘they cannot accept
The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates offer on toleration. This book starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate, reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, and the limited extent to which toleration can be granted. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal. There are several possible objections to, and ways of developing the ideal of, reasonable tolerance as advocated by John Rawls and by some other supporters of political liberalism. The first part of the book explores some of them. In some real-life conflicts, it is unclear on whom the burden of reasonableness may fall. This part discusses the reasonableness of pluralism, and general concept and various more specific conceptions of toleration. The forces of progressive politics have been divided into two camps: redistribution and recognition. The second part of the book is an attempt to explore the internal coherence of such a transformation when applied to different contexts. It argues that openness to others in discourse, and their treatment as free and equal, is part of a kind of reflexive toleration that pertains to public communication in the deliberative context. Social ethos, religious discrimination and education are discussed in connection with tolerance.
The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.
practices were created, shaped and evaluated. When magical
information was made more valuable through secrecy, this facilitated the
circulation of narrative descriptions concerning it. Memorates and anecdotes
simultaneously evaluated motives and situations, classifying them into
socially acceptable and unacceptable forms of magical harm. By functioning
as mechanisms of socialethos and control, narratives of magical harm were
Controversies over gaps within EU crisis management policy
Roger Mac Ginty
Oliver P. Richmond
and thoughts of people living
through crisis situations and who may have a very different cultural and
socialethos. Attempts to have ‘partnerships’ with
scholars and practitioners in the Global South are often unable to
escape North–South structural imbalances and political economies
associated with research, publishing and dissemination.
With these points in mind, the EUNPACK project engaged in