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Bill Jordan

as they appear at first sight to be. This chapter traces the transition from welfare to social exclusion sketched above, and the various theoretical responses it has elicited. 1 Communities of choice The idea that political justice should deal in issues about the distribution of roles and resources, presupposes a political community which corresponds to an economic system for production and exchange

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)

All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. Justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. This book explores two approaches to rights: the interest-based (IB) approach, and the obligation-based or Kantian view. Both are shown to offer coherent justifications that can avoid turning all political concerns into a matter of rights. The concept of social justice emerged in both at the start of the twentieth century, and justified institutions for the democratic modification for market outcomes, on utilitarian, maximin or common good grounds. The book explores whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. It discusses national ties and how they are supposed to act as glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. The book also explores the link between the weakening of states and this change in criminal policies, and outlines their implications for individual rights. Theorists have used the idea of social exclusion to advocate an approach to social justice that sees increased labour-market participation as the key to equal to citizenship. The contemporary understandings of the public-private distinction and feminist critiques of these are also examined.

Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

their communication needs during forced displacement, it was of little value in Australia, where technology literacy has been traditionally disregarded in favour of digital literacy – that is, the ability to use software tools, or, as Leung writes, ‘the ways in which digital literacy have been defined sets up the kind of social exclusion it purports to address’ (p. 90). In chapter 9, the first of the fourth part of the book (‘Practices and Principles’), Leung presents the difference between

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

, broken families, livelihoods lost, economies destroyed. Loss, pain, fear and hate predominate and social exclusion, poverty and miscommunication reign over generations. ( Physicians for Human Rights, 1998 ) Objective and Methodology The study aims to investigate scale and patterns of attacks on healthcare during the Syrian conflict as a form of extreme violence. It aims, also, to contextualise these attacks through investigating their time of occurrence, consequences and potential perpetrators. This is to allow us to draw conclusions on whether these attacks had

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Eunice Goes

subplot deals with the link between ideas on community and socialism. The third subplot concerns the narrative on social exclusion–social inclusion, which sheds light on New Labour’s approach to poverty and social inequalities. The final section assesses the impact of these ideas on New Labour’s ideology and argues that New Labour did not endorse communitarianism, but simply used

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Welfare reform and the ‘Third Way’ politics of New Labour and the New Democrats
Stephen Driver

on social exclusion and pushing ‘work first’ can sustain a commitment to egalitarian social democratic values, something on which Goes (see chapter 6 ) casts doubt. While I acknowledge the continuities between Labour and Conservative approaches to welfare reform, I argue that there are important social democratic elements in New Labour policy which cast doubt on a

in The Third Way and beyond
Cardboard publishers in Latin America
Lucy Bell

) to this day. The term cartonera therefore binds together the human and nonhuman, encompassing the complexity of a publishing movement connected not only with cardboard materials and cartonero workers, but also with broader socio-economic contexts of unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. This semantic ambiguity is attested by the different names taken on by cardboard publishing projects in Portuguesespeaking countries: whereas in Mozambique Kutsemba Cartão (Kutsemba Cardboard) identifies with the cardboard material itself, in Brazil, Dulcinéia Catadora and

in Literature and sustainability

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

places for every 3-year old to be available for all parents who needed it. The existence of such places for children is designed to help more parents with child-care responsibilities to seek employment. ● ● ● ● ● ● Despite the measures and Brown’s claim that he has taken hundreds of thousands of children out of poverty, his aim to eradicate the problem altogether is still very far off. Low wages and areas of high unemployment stubbornly refuse to go away and these may have to be the subject of future policies. social exclusion Part of New Labour philosophy. It

in Understanding British and European political issues