Open Access (free)
The place of equal opportunity
Andrew Mason

positions from which they could be obtained simply because they had less natural talent than those who succeeded. 33 For a sophisticated recent defence of this idea, see D. Miller, Principles of Social Justice (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1999), ch. 8. 34 See Rawls, A Theory of Justice

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)

All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. Justifications of oppression in the name of liberty are no mere products of the liberal imagination, for there are notorious historical examples of their endorsement by authoritarian political leaders. This book explores two approaches to rights: the interest-based (IB) approach, and the obligation-based or Kantian view. Both are shown to offer coherent justifications that can avoid turning all political concerns into a matter of rights. The concept of social justice emerged in both at the start of the twentieth century, and justified institutions for the democratic modification for market outcomes, on utilitarian, maximin or common good grounds. The book explores whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. It discusses national ties and how they are supposed to act as glue that holds the state together in the eyes of its citizens. The book also explores the link between the weakening of states and this change in criminal policies, and outlines their implications for individual rights. Theorists have used the idea of social exclusion to advocate an approach to social justice that sees increased labour-market participation as the key to equal to citizenship. The contemporary understandings of the public-private distinction and feminist critiques of these are also examined.

Ordinary Intimacies in Emerson, Du Bois, and Baldwin
Prentiss Clark

This essay reads James Baldwin in conversation with two unexpected interlocutors from the American nineteenth and twentieth centuries: Ralph Waldo Emerson and W. E. B. Du Bois. What draws these historically distant and intellectually different thinkers together, their differences making their convergences all the more resonant and provocative, is a shared mode of attention they bring to the social crises of their eras. It is a mode of attention foregrounding how the often unobserved particulars and emotional registers of human life vitally shape civic existence; more specifically, a mode of attention provoking us to see how “a larger, juster, and fuller future,” in Du Bois’s words, is a matter of the ordinary intimacies and estrangements in which we exist, human connections in all their expressions and suppressions. Emerson names them “facts [. . .] harder to read.” They are “the finer manifestations,” in Du Bois’s terms, “of social life, which history can but mention and which statistics can not count”; “All these things,” Baldwin says, “[. . .] which no chart can tell us.” In effect, from the 1830s to the 1980s these thinkers bear witness to what politics, legislation, and even all our knowledges can address only partially, and to the potentially transformative compensations we might realize in the way we conduct our daily lives. The immediate relevance and urgency this essay finds in their work exists not in proposed political actions, programs for reform, or systematic theories of social justice but in the way their words revitalize the ethical question “How shall I live?” Accumulative and suggestive rather than systematically comparative or polemical, this essay attempts to engage with Emerson, Du Bois, and Baldwin intimately, to proceed in the spirit of their commitment to questioning received disciplines, languages, and ways of inhabiting the world.

James Baldwin Review
Four Conversations with Canadian Communications Officers
Dominique Marshall

agency to the other. Zuzia Danielski arrived at IMPACT with experience in handling photographs of social justice, gained from work at the Nobel Women’s Initiative where she helped put together an exhibit dedicated to gender violence in the Congo, ‘Beauty in the Middle’ ( Nobel Women’s Initiative, n.d. ) ( Figure 1 ). Having observed during that event how telling images could move people, she was ready to help her new employer to undergo a transition from text-based products to the regular use of images of quality, chosen economically for the stories they told

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

Congolese social justice activists created in Goma in 2012. 4 Brabant (2016) . My press articles on the DRC have also been published by Mediapart , Arrêt sur images and La Croix. 5 is a French website devoted to the analysis and criticism of journalistic practices. It

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

and efficiency of aid delivery implicitly override the principle of humanity. And the search for solutions to today’s increasingly protracted crises overshadows the need for social justice. In some ways, this supposed tension between a strictly technical and neutral humanitarian action and a more political and morally driven one has existed for some time. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) starkly illustrates this tension. It may be built into the DNA of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James, Joseph Grace Kasereka, and Shelley Lees

unfolded among actual and potential participants in Goma reveals how bioethics cannot be disentangled from political histories and contests. The political dimensions of bioethical debates are multifaceted. In eastern DRC, people articulated specific critiques of the trial itself, but the trial also became a space for broader political discussions: a site where citizens articulated long-standing grievances about governance, political economy and social justice, as well the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

liberal states in action. As Duncan Bell observes: ‘Self-declared liberals have supported extensive welfare states and their abolition; the imperial civilizing mission and its passionate denunciation; the necessity of social justice and its outright rejection; the perpetuation of the sovereign state and its transcendence; massive global redistribution of wealth and the radical inequalities of the existing order’ ( Bell, 2014 : 683). 2 Norms can also be supported by the idea that a world of rules and norms has benefits for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

Dignity and Solidarity to Response and Research ’, in Lysaught , M. T. and McCarthy , M. (eds), Catholic Bioethics and Social Justice: The Praxis of US Health Care in a Globalized World ( Collegeville, MN : Liturgical Press ), 343 – 57 . O’Mathúna , D

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

that created independent Bangladesh (1970–72), through the sector’s intervention in Cambodia, El Salvador and elsewhere, its expansion into development and social justice issues, and, finally, the popular fundraising extravaganza of Live Aid in the mid-1980s. Lasse: Placing Biafra in the longue durée of colonial history is indeed significant. There was a colonial baggage of humanitarianism, echoes of colonial optic and colonial iconography; colonialism

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs