Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Here we explore socialism – an ideology that, uniquely, sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Though a more coherent ideology than conservatism, socialism has several markedly different strands. In order to appreciate these, and the roots of socialism in a concrete historical experience, we explore its

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s
György Péteri

1 Consumer and consumerism under state socialism: demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s György Péteri1 Can consumption in state-socialist societies constitute a relevant field for the student of social issues related to overflow situations? So skeptical readers may wonder, and I cannot blame them. Of course, the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about these societies is shortages rather than excesses, insufficiency rather than plenty, a lack of almost everything rather than abundance. Indeed, shortages and their

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Interpreting the unions–party link
Steve Ludlam

ITLP_C10.QXD 18/8/03 10:01 am Page 150 10 Too much pluralism, not enough socialism: interpreting the unions–party link Steve Ludlam A central object of Labour’s re-branding as ‘New Labour’ was to distance it from its trade union affiliates (Gould 1998: 257–8). The relationship was tense before and after the 1997 election, when Blair reduced the unions’ formal power in the party, and restricted employment policy initiatives largely to his predecessors’ promises (Ludlam 2001). But discontent was limited by real union gains, and tension eased markedly between

in Interpreting the Labour Party
The crisis of British social democratic political economy
Noel Thompson

3 From The Future of Socialism (1956) to a future without socialism? The crisis of British social democratic political economy Noel Thompson The national shift to the left, with all its implications for the balance of power, may be accepted as permanent . . . Any Government which tampered seriously with the basic structure of the full-employment Welfare State would meet with a sharp reverse at the polls . . . It is this which explains the otherwise curious phenomenon that the Conservatives now fight elections largely on policies which twenty years ago were

in In search of social democracy
Catherine Baker

3 Transnational formations of race before and during Yugoslav state socialism In domains from the history of popular entertainment to that of ethnicity and migration, ideas of race, as well as ethnicity and religion, have demonstrably formed part of how people from the Yugoslav region have understood their place in Europe and the world. The region's history during, and after, the era of direct European colonialism differed from the USA's, France's or Brazil's; but this did not exclude it from the networks of ‘race in translation’ (Stam and

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Martin McIvor

13 Republicanism, socialism and the renewal of the left1 Martin McIvor Recent soul-searching among the intellectual left has returned with increasing frequency and interest to implicitly or explicitly ‘republican’ themes and arguments. As class identities fracture, and state ownership falls into disrepute, republican conceptions of equal citizenship and the inherent value of a ‘public realm’ have appealed to many as potentially productive starting points for the left’s ideological renewal. This is not an especially new idea. As early as 1991, an important

in In search of social democracy
Postsocialist, post-conflict, postcolonial?
Author: Catherine Baker

This book explains theoretical work in postcolonial and postsocialist studies to offer a novel and distinctive insight into how Yugoslavia is configured by, and through, race. It presents the history of how ideas of racialised difference have been translated globally in Yugoslavia. The book provides a discussion on the critical race scholarship, global historical sociologies of 'race in translation' and south-east European cultural critique to show that the Yugoslav region is deeply embedded in global formations of race. It considers the geopolitical imagination of popular culture; the history of ethnicity; and transnational formations of race before and during state socialism, including the Non-Aligned Movement. The book also considers the post-Yugoslav discourses of security, migration, terrorism and international intervention, including the War on Terror and the refugee crisis. It elaborates how often-neglected aspects of the history of nationhood and migration reveal connections that tie the region into the global history of race. The book also explains the linkage between ethnic exclusivism and territory in the ethnopolitical logic of the Bosnian conflict and in the internationally mediated peace agreements that enshrined it: 'apartheid cartography'. Race and whiteness remained perceptible in post-war Bosnian identity discourses as new, open-ended forms of post-conflict international intervention developed.

Paul Currion

.1017/S181638311700042X . Schumpeter , J. A. ( 2003 ), Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ( London : Routledge ). Scott-Smith , T. ( 2016 ), ‘ Humanitarian Neophilia: The “Innovation Turn” and Its Implications’ , Third World Quarterly , doi

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman (accessed 15 February 2019). Longman , T. ( 2010 ), Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda ( New York : Cambridge University Press ). Mamdani , M. ( 2001 ), When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ). Mason , T. ( 1981 ), ‘Intention and explanation: A current controversy about the interpretation of National Socialism’ , in Hirschfeld , G. and Kettenacker , L. (eds), Der ‘Führerstaat’: Mythos und Realität ( Stuttgart : Klett-Cotta ), pp. 21 – 40 . Rever , J

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.