Here we explore socialism – an ideology that, uniquely, sprang
from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was
its product, the working class. Though a more coherent ideology than
conservatism, socialism has several markedly different strands. In order
to appreciate these, and the roots of socialism in a concrete historical
experience, we explore its
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long
Consumer and consumerism under state
socialism: demand-side abundance
and its discontents in Hungary during
the long 1960s
Can consumption in state-socialist societies constitute a relevant
field for the student of social issues related to overflow situations?
So skeptical readers may wonder, and I cannot blame them. Of
course, the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about
these societies is shortages rather than excesses, insufficiency rather
than plenty, a lack of almost everything rather than abundance.
Indeed, shortages and their
Too much pluralism, not enough socialism:
interpreting the unions–party link
A central object of Labour’s re-branding as ‘New Labour’ was to distance it from
its trade union affiliates (Gould 1998: 257–8). The relationship was tense before
and after the 1997 election, when Blair reduced the unions’ formal power in the
party, and restricted employment policy initiatives largely to his predecessors’
promises (Ludlam 2001). But discontent was limited by real union gains, and tension eased markedly between
The crisis of British social democratic political economy
From The Future of Socialism (1956) to
a future without socialism? The crisis of
British social democratic political economy
The national shift to the left, with all its implications for the balance of power,
may be accepted as permanent . . . Any Government which tampered seriously with the basic structure of the full-employment Welfare State would
meet with a sharp reverse at the polls . . . It is this which explains the otherwise curious phenomenon that the Conservatives now fight elections largely
on policies which twenty years ago were
3 Transnational formations of race before and during Yugoslav state socialism
In domains from the history of popular entertainment to that of ethnicity and migration, ideas of race, as well as ethnicity and religion, have demonstrably formed part of how people from the Yugoslav region have understood their place in Europe and the world. The region's history during, and after, the era of direct European colonialism differed from the USA's, France's or Brazil's; but this did not exclude it from the networks of ‘race in translation’ (Stam and
Republicanism, socialism and the renewal
of the left1
Recent soul-searching among the intellectual left has returned with increasing frequency and interest to implicitly or explicitly ‘republican’ themes
and arguments. As class identities fracture, and state ownership falls into
disrepute, republican conceptions of equal citizenship and the inherent
value of a ‘public realm’ have appealed to many as potentially productive
starting points for the left’s ideological renewal.
This is not an especially new idea. As early as 1991, an important
Schumpeter , J.
A. ( 2003 ), Capitalism, Socialism and
Democracy ( London :
T. ( 2016 ), ‘ Humanitarian
Neophilia: The “Innovation Turn” and Its
Implications’ , Third World
Quarterly , doi
.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/rwanda-state-research (accessed 15 February 2019).
Longman , T. ( 2010 ), Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda ( New York : Cambridge University Press ).
Mamdani , M. ( 2001 ), When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ).
Mason , T. ( 1981 ), ‘Intention and explanation: A current controversy about the interpretation of National Socialism’ , in Hirschfeld , G. and Kettenacker , L. (eds), Der ‘Führerstaat’: Mythos und Realität ( Stuttgart : Klett-Cotta ), pp. 21 – 40 .
Rever , J
This book explains theoretical work in postcolonial and postsocialist studies to
offer a novel and distinctive insight into how Yugoslavia is configured by, and
through, race. It presents the history of how ideas of racialised difference
have been translated globally in Yugoslavia. The book provides a discussion on
the critical race scholarship, global historical sociologies of 'race in
translation' and south-east European cultural critique to show that the
Yugoslav region is deeply embedded in global formations of race. It considers
the geopolitical imagination of popular culture; the history of ethnicity; and
transnational formations of race before and during state socialism, including
the Non-Aligned Movement. The book also considers the post-Yugoslav discourses
of security, migration, terrorism and international intervention, including the
War on Terror and the refugee crisis. It elaborates how often-neglected aspects
of the history of nationhood and migration reveal connections that tie the
region into the global history of race. The book also explains the linkage
between ethnic exclusivism and territory in the ethnopolitical logic of the
Bosnian conflict and in the internationally mediated peace agreements that
enshrined it: 'apartheid cartography'. Race and whiteness remained
perceptible in post-war Bosnian identity discourses as new, open-ended forms of
post-conflict international intervention developed.
In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.