Open Access (free)
An allegory of imperial rapport

circulating icons clearly enhance the soft power of monarchy. Within this landscape, films about royals also have their role to play. Two major commercial releases of the years 2000 map this change in opinion in Britain and Australia, and stand out as contemporary narrative explorations of the legitimacy of the British monarchy: The Queen (Stephen Frears, 2006) and The King’s Speech (Tom Hooper, 2010

in The British monarchy on screen
Rhetoric and Identity in James Baldwin’s Revolution from Within

Despite the proliferation of interest in James Baldwin across popular culture and the academy, few, if any, critical studies of his public oratory have been conducted. This is unfortunate and ironic—unfortunate because Baldwin was a marvelous orator, and ironic in that his preferred solution to what ailed whites and blacks as the Civil Rights movement unfolded was thoroughly rhetorical. That is, Baldwin’s racial rhetorical revolution involved a re-valuing of the historical evidence used to keep blacks enslaved both mentally and physically across countless generations. Moreover, for Baldwin the act of naming functions to chain both whites and blacks to a version of American history psychologically damaging to both. Three speeches that Baldwin delivered in 1963 amid the crucible of civil rights protest illustrate these claims.

James Baldwin Review

most ‘successful’ fabricated stories can attract more likes and retweets than the most popular and accurate stories published in the mainstream media ( Allcott and Gentzkow, 2017 ). These findings cut to the heart of some of our most celebrated ideals about free speech and democracy. For centuries, liberal philosophers have argued that open debate and discussion will edge us closer to the truth. As John Milton proclaimed in 1644 , ‘Let [truth] and Falsehood grapple; whoever knew Truth put to the worse, in a free and open encounter?’ Two centuries

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

with the requisite language skills are less likely to be available. Technological solutions are also less feasible. For example, MT generally relies upon the availability of already translated digitised texts to train each system. The Creole-to-English MT system in Haiti was only possible because of previously translated texts (though limited in number), including the Bible and data from a Carnegie Mellon University speech-to-speech research project conducted in the 1990s

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction

coloniality and liberal humanitarianism. Notes 1 In his State of the Union address of 1941, Roosevelt suggested that all the people of the world should enjoy four fundamental freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear. 2 The Dumbarton Oaks Conference took place in Washington, D.C., from August to October 1944. Delegations from the US, the UK, the Soviet Union and China gathered to discuss plans for a post-war international organisation. The United Nations then came into existence in October 1945, when 51

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.’ (King James Version, Genesis 11.5–9) Bibliography

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

world politics, we know that these principles are mainly honoured in the breach. Most vulnerable is the idea that liberal space is somehow apolitical. To take an obvious example, no self-respecting liberal state could pass a law that required its citizens to practise the same religion or to curb their freedom to dissent against the government. Private freedoms are beyond the reach of public policy (with obvious complexities, e.g. around hate speech and blasphemy). The problem here is simply put. In the words of Brian Barry (1990 : 8): If the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister

Brazilian diplomat. As we began discussing international affairs and strategy, Amorim’s speech assumed a calm, professorial cadence. ‘Global disorder’ undermines international cooperation, he suggested soberly. And there is a need to rescue human rights discourse, despite the hypocrisy and selectivity of its liberal proponents. Amorim leant forward when I brought up Brazil’s recent withdrawal from the world stage. As foreign minister throughout the two presidential terms of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2011, he guided Brazil to a position of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

The origins of the concept in Enlightenment intellectual culture

speech not possessed by written language, a development that led to a deeper appreciation of so-called ‘primitive’ language in non-literate societies. Readers will recognize the irony of this development: as European society became more literate, it gained an ever sharper awareness of oral cultures and their special characteristics. Despite being surrounded by a predominantly oral culture, medieval authors were virtually unconscious of ‘orality’ as a special state of either language or society. They failed to distinguish between oral and literate societies, for they

in The spoken word