Greer Vanderbyl, John Albanese, and Hugo F. V. Cardoso
The sourcing of cadavers for North American skeletal reference collections occurred immediately after death and targeted the poor and marginalised. In Europe, collections sourced bodies that were buried and unclaimed after some time in cemeteries with no perpetual care mandate, and may have also targeted the underprivileged. The relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and abandonment was examined in a sample of unclaimed remains (603 adults and 98 children) collected from cemeteries in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, that were incorporated in a collection. Results demonstrate that low SES individuals are not more likely to be abandoned nor to be incorporated in the collection than higher SES individuals. Furthermore, historical data indicate that the poorest were not incorporated into the collection, because of burial practices. Although the accumulation of collections in North America was facilitated by structural violence that targeted the poor and marginalised, this phenomenon seems largely absent in the Lisbon collection.
relating to the perpetuation of the group.1 These rituals frequently
involve the use of temporarygraves, as the final burial or cremation
of the bodies is, in the societies studied by Hertz and in others, only
the last stage of this process.
Few studies in this field, however, have dealt with collective
burials. Anthropologists interested in the specific contexts of wars
and epidemics2 have developed the notion of ‘catastrophe burial’,
which relates to the simultaneous mass burial of large numbers of
corpses as a result of natural disasters, famine, disease or conflict
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
memory, as the country was attempting to
restore the splendour of the Roman Empire.9
Actually, Redipuglia is simply a final destination for the remains
it contains, as they reached it only after one or more exhumations.
In Italy,10 as well as in the rest of Europe, as argued by Winter,11 the
treatment of the fallen soldiers of the Great War went through three
successive stages. Until 1918, shrines and graves were systematically built along the front. During the 1920s the temporarygraves
near the battlefields were dismantled, and corpses started to be