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The challenge of Eurasian security governance

Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.

2504Chap4 7/4/03 12:39 pm Page 69 4 Eurasia and the transnational terrorist threats to Atlantic security Phil Williams The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were not only the most audacious and successful terrorist attacks the world has yet seen, but also marked the maturation of what had been described as the ‘new terrorism’. It was a maturation in several senses. In the first place it revealed that trends identified by astute specialists such as Walter Laqueur, Bruce Hoffman and Ian Lesser were, in fact, well

in Limiting institutions?
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Post-crisis Asia – economic recovery, September 11, 2001 and the challenges ahead

Most Asian countries experienced a sharp economic slowdown beginning in the last quarter of 2000. The problems of a deteriorating external environment due in large part to the downturn in the US economy were exacerbated by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Countries that are closely linked to the global economy through trade and capital flows were more adversely affected than those where these linkages are weaker. In particular, Asian countries with heavier dependence on manufacturing, in particular the production and export of electronics, saw a larger decline in

in The Asian financial crisis
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, embedded in an EU and a NATO that, through their inclusive and non-aggressive character, do not permit the ‘alliance– counter-alliance’ structure of the Europe of the past. An intricate ‘European security architecture’ – provided by the two institutions mentioned plus others – may be confusing and overlapping, but may also preserve peace and co-operation via their multiple activities. Co-operation intensified following the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001, leading to a broad anti-terrorism coalition spanning the Atlantic and beyond and

in Destination Europe

extraordinary high result can be attributed to the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington DC (the previous month produced an approval score of 42 per cent), since early 2000, Congress has been consistently receiving higher approval than disapproval ratings. 162 The United States Congress Opinion polls are a good snapshot of the public mood at one time, but as the results from November 2001 show, they can be influenced by a variety of factors. The problematic question of whether Congress ‘works’ is, though, an important one. This chapter will examine

in The United States Congress

-scale anti-terrorism operation to release hostages, peacekeeping operations, and disaster-relief and rescue missions.19 Consequently, the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, DC, only underscored the vital importance of the PfP exercise in Georgia and the Black Sea the preceding June, which tested the skills and procedures required to deal with real world crisis scenarios. From Poland to Georgia, Europe and Eurasia have experienced the evolution of a cooperative security process that provides the framework for former enemy states to train and

in Limiting institutions?

security governance complexities of balancing entangling external linkages with the preservation of unique domestic economic and political programmes and prerogatives. There has been an understandable post-Cold War tendency to discount Russia’s continuing regional capabilities and commitment to its Eurasian leadership position. Indeed, the dramatic September 11 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States and consequent insertion of American military power in Central Asia further complicated Russia’s FSU leadership aspirations and may launch a new era in the Eurasian

in Limiting institutions?

in the creation of the ‘Shanghai Five’ in 1996, a grouping that was subsequently enlarged with the addition of Uzbekistan in 1999 and formalised in 2001 with the creation of the SCO.5 The Shanghai process generated cooperation agreements in various issue areas, ranging from border disputes to economic cooperation to anti-terrorism measures. In this way, China established a firm diplomatic presence in the region. The September 11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, DC, 105 2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 106 Security threats however, have had a lasting

in Limiting institutions?
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United States. The Europeans showed similar scepticism as regards preliminary US plans for a Strategic Missile Defence project aimed at developing the capacity for shooting down incoming missiles. The terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001 and the converging interests of the United States and Russia by mid-2002 MUP_Torbion_08_Ch8 169 22/9/03, 1:53 pm 170 Destination Europe modified the situation. Both sides abrogated the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, thus permitting the US anti-missile project to go forward. The two countries also

in Destination Europe
continuity, innovation and renewal

organisational elements, which enabled it to present itself once again as a credible party of government. Moreover, the renewal of Rodríguez Zapatero’s mandate at the March 2008 general election effectively neutralised charges that he was simply an ‘accidental’ prime minister, who owed office to the particular circumstances in which the 2004 general election took place, just days after Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on Madrid. The chapter adopts a chronological approach. First, the party’s transformation from near irrelevance into a party of government under Felipe González will

in In search of social democracy