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A former founding father in search of control
Ben J.S. Hoetjes

2444Ch13 3/12/02 13 2:05 pm Page 315 Ben J.S. Hoetjes The Netherlands: a former founding father in search of control Introduction: a mature member’s second thoughts The involvement of the Dutch in European integration dates back to the 1950s, and so do the Dutch attitudes towards it. Over the years, they have changed, but there is also a long-standing support for the overall process of European integration. A clear distinction, however, should be drawn between the elite and the general public. For the general public, European integration in the 1950s was a

in Fifteen into one?
‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’
Cas Mudde

chap5 28/5/02 13.32 Page 117 Part III The Netherlands: ‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’ The extreme right in the Netherlands, 1945–84 Following the end of the Second World War the Dutch process of denazification began with the internment of some 100,000 collaborators. Several former members of the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging in Nederland (National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, NSB), the only legal Dutch political party during the German occupation, and of the (Waffen-) SS lost their political rights, mostly for several years (see Bank 1998

in The ideology of the extreme right
Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than 300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition, collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that impacted on the victims.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

teams than the futile pursuit of some orthodoxy. Notes 1 It was signed by twelve states: the Grand Duchy of Baden, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia, Switzerland and Württemberg. 2 That is, mobile medical facilities, according to the meaning at the time

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Author: Cas Mudde

This book provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the five main parties of the extreme right in the Netherlands (Centrumdemocraten, Centrumpartij), Belgium (Vlaams Blok), and Germany (Die Republikaner, Deutsche Volksunion). Using primary research — including internal party documents — it concludes that rather than right-wing and extremist, the core ideology of these parties is xenophobic nationalist, including also a mix of law and order and welfare chauvinism. The author's research and conclusions have broader implications for the study of the extreme-right phenomenon and party ideology in general.

Jon Birger Skjærseth and Tora Skodvin

assume that ExxonMobil is most exposed to a social demand for environmental protection in the US, Shell in the Netherlands and Europe, and Statoil in Norway. Based on the companies’ climate strategies, we would expect that social demand – in relative terms – ranks highest in the Netherlands and Europe, lowest in the US and somewhere in between in Norway. Several public opinion surveys have included questions about threats to the environment and attitudes to environmental protection since the 1970s. However, cross-country comparability and consistency of longitudinal

in Climate change and the oil industry
The case of the Netherlands
Stuart Blume

6 The erosion of public sector vaccine production: the case of the Netherlands Stuart Blume Introduction Despite earlier resistance to compulsory smallpox vaccination, by 1900 the possibility of protection against diphtheria was greeted with hopeful anticipation. Diphtheria, a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused the deaths of many children. At the end of the

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

strengthened by the results at the provincial election the next year, where the CD unsuccessfully stood candidates in the three provinces of the Randstad, i.e. North and South Holland and Utrecht. During this time the CD had received large media attention on two occasions. The first and most widely covered story was an ‘anti-fascist’ attack on a hotel in Kedichem, in which members of the CP and CD had convened, in March 1986. Within extreme left circles it was believed that they were plan- chap5 28/5/02 13.32 124 Page 124 The Netherlands ning a fusion of the two

in The ideology of the extreme right
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witchcraft continued
Willem de Blécourt and Owen Davies

, witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. In her seminal review of witchcraft studies concerning the continuation of witchcraft after the end of the witch trials, Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra made a similar observation. She introduces her itinerary through European witchcraft research with a number of cases ‘from Ireland to Russia’ in which witches were burned as a result of

in Witchcraft Continued
Olivier Thomas Kramsch

1 EU cross-border Passagenwerk Olivier Thomas Kramsch For us, the solution was in the direction of the horizon. We were those who scrutinised the horizon. We looked forward, not back. To the question, ‘What is thinking?’ we didn’t respond, ‘Being’ [like Heidegger] but with ‘the possible’. (Henri Lefebvre, cited in Hess 1988: 54) Thoughts from a deckchair in Wyler, Germany Walking through the village of Wyler, the last German settlement before the border crossing into the Netherlands, one drifts past cavernous, odoriferous farmhouses, fleeting images of green

in Migrating borders and moving times