Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.

A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
Deljana Iossifova

Sanitation is entangled with material infrastructure, policy landscapes and everyday practices, encompassing underpinning value, belief and norm systems. In this chapter, I argue that sanitation must be studied as more than an engineered system in order to design targeted interventions towards more sustainable futures. I reflect on the ways in which ideals of the networked city have perpetuated urban governance, planning and design and look at the ways in which they are embedded within China’s ongoing Toilet Revolution. I then propose that practice theory, in

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Philip Nanton

Territorially small though St Vincent may be, the frontier between (‘wild’) hinterland country and (‘civilised’) urbanity is reinforced by the island’s complex and difficult topography. The natural wild persists in twenty-first century St Vincent in its hills and central mountainous terrain. Numerous divisions, spurs and folds slice through either side of the island

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Open Access (free)
The bridge, the fund and insurance in Dar es Salaam
Irmelin Joelsson

behind a prominent strand of African socialism, Ujamaa (a Swahili word that translates as ‘familyhood’ or ‘extended family’): the late Julius Kambarage Nyerere. While Nyerere's idea of self-reliance, kujitegemea , was based on agrarian socialism (Nyerere, 1967 ), the concept translated well into an increasingly urban Tanzania. Money might be short, and formal work out of reach but, as a boda boda (motorcycle taxi) driver argued while waiting for customers in the busy Morocco intersection in Dar es Salaam, ‘If you're unemployed or without

in African cities and collaborative futures
Urban platforms and metropolitan logistics

African cities and collaborative futures: Urban platforms and metropolitan logistics brings together scholars from across the globe to discuss the nature of African cities – the interactions of residents with infrastructure, energy, housing, safety and sustainability, seen through local narratives and theories. This groundbreaking collection, drawing on a variety of fields and extensive first-hand research, offers a fresh perspective on some of the most pressing issues confronting urban Africa in the twenty-first century. Each of the chapters, using case studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania, explores how the rapid growth of African cities is reconfiguring the relationship between urban social life and its built forms. While the most visible transformations in cities today can be seen as infrastructural, these manifestations are cultural as well as material, reflecting the different ways in which the city is rationalised, economised and governed. How can we ‘see like a city’ in twenty-first-century Africa, understanding the urban present to shape its future? This is the central question posed throughout this volume, with a practical focus on how academics, local decision-makers and international practitioners can work together to achieve better outcomes.

Mark Pelling, Alejandro Barcena, Hayley Leck, Ibidun Adelekan, David Dodman, Hamadou Issaka, Cassidy Johnson, Mtafu Manda, Blessing Mberu, Ezebunwa Nwokocha, Emmanuel Osuteye, and Soumana Boubacar

Introduction The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) challenge urban planners, risk professionals, researchers and citizens to extend their focus from accounting for the status of risk towards understanding and acting on the processes that can enable a transition to more risk-sensitive and transformative urban development across all contexts. Risk-sensitive development is required to reduce risk that has accumulated in the city and to better consider risk when planning new developments (Jones and Preston, 2011 ). This

in African cities and collaborative futures
Transnational reflections from Brazilians in London and Maré, Rio de Janeiro
Cathy McIlwaine, Miriam Krenzinger, Yara Evans, and Eliana Sousa Silva

As women comprise a majority of urban citizens in the world today, questions remain about the nature of a feminised urban future. While it is established that urbanisation has the potential to promote gender transformations (Chant and McIlwaine, 2016 ), it is important to consider how positive changes are potentially undermined by violence against women and girls (VAWG) and, concomitantly, how violence affects women’s health and wellbeing in cities. In a context whereby one in three women globally experiences such violence, with arguably higher incidence in

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Reinventing depression among Rio de Janeiro urban dwellers
Leandro David Wenceslau and Francisco Ortega

Urban living is frequently regarded as a source of both benefits (e.g. access to public services and labour market) and risks (e.g. violence and pollution) to its inhabitants. The so-called urban paradox (Iossifova, Doll and Gasparatos, 2018 ) has engaged researchers from different disciplines interested in how urban dwellers cope with life in cities and whether, and in what conditions, the benefits outweigh the risks. In urban health research it is no different. While city living is associated with health hazards resulting from risk factors in the urban

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Alannah Tomkins

6 Pawnbroking and the survival strategies of the urban poor in 1770s York Alannah Tomkins The poor in England Pawnbroking and the urban poor Introduction On 9 June 1778 a woman called Ann Moyser visited George Fettes’s pawnbroker’s shop in York to pledge a checked apron, for which she received a shilling.1 On 14 October in the same year, the pawnbroker received a business call from the overseers of St Mary Castlegate parish in York. They claimed that the apron did not belong to Ann but to a parishioner of theirs called Sarah Wood. It is not clear whether the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Presumed black immunity to yellow fever and the racial politics of burial labour in 1855 Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia
Michael D. Thompson

Epidemic disease regularly tore through nineteenth-century American cities, triggering public health crises and economic upheaval. These epidemic panics also provoked new racialised labour regimes, affecting the lives of innumerable working people. During yellow fever outbreaks, white authorities and employers preferred workers of colour over ‘unacclimated’ white immigrants, reflecting a common but mistaken belief in black invulnerability. This article chronicles enslaved burial labourers in antebellum Virginia, who leveraged this notion to seize various privileges – and nearly freedom. These episodes demonstrate that black labour, though not always black suffering or lives, mattered immensely to white officials managing these urban crises. Black workers were not mere tools for protecting white wealth and health, however, as they often risked torment and death to capitalise on employers’ desperation for their essential labour. This history exposes racial and socioeconomic divergence between those able to shelter or flee from infection, and those compelled to remain exposed and exploitable.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal