Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city examines how urban health and wellbeing are shaped by migration, mobility, racism, sanitation and gender. Adopting a global focus, spanning Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the essays in this volume bring together a wide selection of voices that explore the interface between social, medical and natural sciences. This interdisciplinary approach, moving beyond traditional approaches to urban research, offers a unique perspective on today’s cities and the challenges they face. Edited by Professor Michael Keith and Dr Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos, this volume also features contributions from leading thinkers on cities in Brazil, China, South Africa and the United Kingdom. This geographic diversity is matched by the breadth of their different fields, from mental health and gendered violence to sanitation and food systems. Together, they present a complex yet connected vision of a ‘new biopolitics’ in today’s metropolis, one that requires an innovative approach to urban scholarship regardless of geography or discipline. This volume, featuring chapters from a number of renowned authors including the former deputy mayor of Rio de Janeiro Luiz Eduardo Soares, is an important resource for anyone seeking to better understand the dynamics of urban change. With its focus on the everyday realities of urban living, from health services to public transport, it contains valuable lessons for academics, policy makers and practitioners alike.
Risk-sensitive urban development is required to reduce accumulated risk and
to better consider risk when planning new developments. To deliver a
sustainable city for all requires a more frank and comprehensive focus on
procedure: on who makes decisions, under which frameworks, based upon what
kind of data or knowledge, and with what degree and direction of
accountability. Acting on these procedural questions is the promise of
transformative urban development. This chapter explores the status of
risk-sensitive and transformative urban development and the scope for
transition towards these components of sustainability in urban sub-Saharan
Africa through the lens of diverse city cases: Karonga (Malawi), Ibadan
(Nigeria), Niamey (Niger) and Nairobi (Kenya). A common analytical framework
is presented to help identify blockages and opportunities for transition
towards a risk-sensitive and transformative urban development. This
framework is then illustrated through each city in turn; a concluding
discussion reflects on city observations to draw out recommendations for
city-level and wider action and research partnerships.
African cities and collaborative futures: Urban platforms and metropolitan
logistics brings together scholars from across the globe to discuss the nature
of African cities – the interactions of residents with infrastructure, energy,
housing, safety and sustainability, seen through local narratives and theories.
This groundbreaking collection, drawing on a variety of fields and extensive
first-hand research, offers a fresh perspective on some of the most pressing
issues confronting urban Africa in the twenty-first century. Each of the
chapters, using case studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, South
Africa and Tanzania, explores how the rapid growth of African cities is
reconfiguring the relationship between urban social life and its built forms.
While the most visible transformations in cities today can be seen as
infrastructural, these manifestations are cultural as well as material,
reflecting the different ways in which the city is rationalised, economised and
governed. How can we ‘see like a city’ in twenty-first-century Africa,
understanding the urban present to shape its future? This is the central
question posed throughout this volume, with a practical focus on how academics,
local decision-makers and international practitioners can work together to
achieve better outcomes.
history of comparative studies in the social sciences, but for the purposes of this volume it is perhaps most important to emphasise how different chapters make visible similar logics in rapidly changing empirical contexts. The emergence of four decades of exponential growth in China since Deng’s ‘opening up’ qualifies any suggestion that the country’s urbantransformation constitutes a form of urbanism of the global south. The ‘modernisation’ of cities in Brazil and South Africa qualifies the extent to which urbantransformation can be seen straightforwardly through a
A Toilet Revolution and its socio-eco-technical entanglements
provision of affordable housing, education and, much neglected in the scholarly literature, universal sanitation and the handling of human waste. As rural-to-urban migrants agglomerate in older and impoverished neighbourhoods without access to sanitation in private homes, they have to rely on public toilets as municipalities struggle to develop appropriate responses to their sanitation needs (Iossifova, 2015 ; Zhou and Zhou, 2018 ).
In this context, rethinking sanitation – under conditions of rapid urbantransformation – seems sensible. The percentage of urban
Urban presence and uncertain futures in African cities
Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
transport, drainage, sewage and electrification systems, places to work and places to live. Urbantransformations disrupt and reconstruct the relationship between humanity and nature, disturbing existing ecosystems and generating new levels of carbon emission, domestic and industrial sources of (rarely low-carbon) energy. But these changes are not material alone. They reconfigure the ways in which cities choose (for better and for worse) to govern their citizens, denizens and occasional dwellers. Their built forms also assume an agency of their own. Before they are
Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
the concluding chapter of the volume we go on to consider a fourth dimension of this new configuration. The implications of new urban sciences that engage social scientific and medical knowledges simultaneously demand a new urban imaginary. To consider how they collectively open up different scenarios of the healthy city implies thinking experimentally about optimising public health interventions in global processes of urbantransformation. Such a disposition consequently also implies a newly engaged form of urban scholarship.
Uncertain futures and complex
From an ‘infrastructural turn’ to the platform logics of
Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
on inside the categories of urbanism that are captured by the descriptor. We identify four such contact zones (Pratt, 1992 ) here, but they are offered more as exemplary rather than exclusive regimes of exchange through which these chapters might insert themselves into further stories of global urbantransformation.
It is perhaps these contact zones that define some of the themes that emerge from this volume and suggest some, not all, possible avenues for further study in the field. They relate in turn to the sometimes fragile forms of global
Learning from communities in informal settlements in Durban, South
Maria Christina Georgiadou
large collaborative project between UK and South African research institutions (the ISULabaNtu project), this chapter presents findings from Phases 1 (‘Context analysis’) and 4 (‘Project management and skills enhancement in construction’) and explores various interpretations of ‘self-help’ housing. The overall research adopted a postcolonial perspective to urbantransformations and explored community-led approaches for informal settlement upgrading in the Durban metropolitan area (eThekwini) (McEwan, 2009 ; Pieterse, 2010 ; Watson, 2014 ). ISULabaNtu was framed
making a living. Until the 2000s people were scared to visit Napoli because of violence associated with organised crime and rubbish mismanagement. But, whilst I was doing the research, huge amounts of money were invested to transform the city into a popular tourist location. By the time I finished writing, nearly a decade after I had first started working there, the street markets around the main railway station no longer existed, or had significantly shrunk as a result of these processes of urbantransformation.
This book is based on ethnographic research that I