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The case of the Netherlands
Stuart Blume

6 The erosion of public sector vaccine production: the case of the Netherlands Stuart Blume Introduction Despite earlier resistance to compulsory smallpox vaccination, by 1900 the possibility of protection against diphtheria was greeted with hopeful anticipation. Diphtheria, a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused the deaths of many children. At the end of the

in The politics of vaccination
Ana María Carrillo

5 Vaccine production, national security anxieties and the unstable state in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Mexico Ana María Carrillo Introduction Since pre-Columbian times, Mexico has experienced notable periods of progress in science and technology. Political, economic and social problems have, however, often interrupted these developments, thus the country has been forced to rebuild

in The politics of vaccination
A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

research combined with commercial production. Even today, institutes are the principal suppliers of vaccines in Japan, as opposed to most other countries, where virtually all of the vaccine-producing institutes and laboratories have closed and been replaced by large, multinational pharmaceutical companies. Organisational foundations The institutionalisation of Japan's model for vaccine production got underway in 1893 with the

in The politics of vaccination
Elisha P. Renne

in Kaduna precisely because it had been identified as an area of parental non-compliance, based on data collected during earlier immunisation day exercises (Figure 11.1 ). Yet the specific historical context of vaccination programmes – how, by whom, and why they were implemented – and vaccine production and procurement has had consequences for such interventions and how they have been subsequently perceived

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

-up enthusiasms for and antagonisms toward vaccines and vaccination, thereby deepening recognition that immunising technologies are growth media that can both foster and erode national and transnational solidarity. Nationality, vaccine production and the end of sovereign manufacture In Part II the authors focus on vaccine production, which began around the start of the twentieth century, typically in municipal or state-run public

in The politics of vaccination
Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

conclusively in 1933. When the virus was successfully grown in embryonated eggs, the first vaccines could be manufactured. This was important for the allied war effort during the Second World War, and influenza vaccines were tested on soldiers in the 1940s. 24 Influenza vaccine production in Sweden began at the National Bacteriological Institute (SBL) in 1945–46, at a time when memory of the Spanish flu was still alive. 25 Trust in the general

in The politics of vaccination
Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

omnipresent threat. It usually caused outbreaks in the summer months, and did not come every year. Another important aspect was the financial commitment vaccination required: importing vaccines was a costly enterprise and setting up domestic vaccine production required significant investment, like building new laboratories, training staff and importing and keeping expensive lab animals. 22 This latter, economic aspect was especially important in Eastern Europe, since

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

the twentieth century it became a cornerstone for major transformations in vaccine production capacity and regarding the use of vaccines to fight other diseases in Brazil. I see these vaccines as complex sociotechnical constructs involving many different phenomena: the interactions of microorganisms, culture media and other physico-chemical and biological components that produce substances with alleged or proven immunisation effectiveness

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

’ or become ‘intensely emotional’ to ‘a method smacking of the village raffle applied to something which might be so important for their children’. 39 Even so, the degree and nature of supply shortages was an embarrassment. Glaxo continued to have production difficulties, caused by the technical nature of vaccine production and a shortage of available monkeys for testing. 40 When a vial of vaccine changed colour in early 1957, possibly because of bacterial contamination caused by improper storage during transit, the entire batch had to be withdrawn, causing

in Vaccinating Britain