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The case of the Netherlands
Stuart Blume

6 The erosion of public sector vaccine production: the case of the Netherlands Stuart Blume Introduction Despite earlier resistance to compulsory smallpox vaccination, by 1900 the possibility of protection against diphtheria was greeted with hopeful anticipation. Diphtheria, a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused the deaths of many children. At the end of the

in The politics of vaccination
Ana María Carrillo

5 Vaccine production, national security anxieties and the unstable state in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Mexico Ana María Carrillo Introduction Since pre-Columbian times, Mexico has experienced notable periods of progress in science and technology. Political, economic and social problems have, however, often interrupted these developments, thus the country has been forced to rebuild

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Humanity and Solidarity
Tanja R. Müller and Róisín Read

reflections on what solidarity and humanity may mean in times of global crises and fake news. COVID-19 has exposed once more the divide between wealthy nations and the rest ( Ho and Dascalu, 2020 ) – the former not necessarily distributed geographically but in relation to gatekeeping of patent rights and vaccine production facilities. While a small number of countries vaccinates all its populations, with some internal vulnerability ranking in most, for the majority of vulnerable populations globally the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

-producing institutes and laboratories have closed and been replaced by large, multinational pharmaceutical companies. Organisational foundations The institutionalisation of Japan's model for vaccine production got underway in 1893 with the establishment of the Institute of Infectious Diseases (IID), what the historian of Japanese science and technology James Bartholomew has referred to as ‘the most important research facility built [in

in The politics of vaccination
Elisha P. Renne

in Kaduna precisely because it had been identified as an area of parental non-compliance, based on data collected during earlier immunisation day exercises (Figure 11.1 ). Yet the specific historical context of vaccination programmes – how, by whom, and why they were implemented – and vaccine production and procurement has had consequences for such interventions and how they have been subsequently perceived

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

modern South Korean nation. The chapters in this section thus reflect the mixed record of both top-down and bottom-up enthusiasms for and antagonisms toward vaccines and vaccination, thereby deepening recognition that immunising technologies are growth media that can both foster and erode national and transnational solidarity. Nationality, vaccine production and the end of sovereign manufacture In Part II the authors focus on

in The politics of vaccination
Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

conclusively in 1933. When the virus was successfully grown in embryonated eggs, the first vaccines could be manufactured. This was important for the allied war effort during the Second World War, and influenza vaccines were tested on soldiers in the 1940s. 24 Influenza vaccine production in Sweden began at the National Bacteriological Institute (SBL) in 1945–46, at a time when memory of the Spanish flu was still alive. 25 Trust in the general

in The politics of vaccination
Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

omnipresent threat. It usually caused outbreaks in the summer months, and did not come every year. Another important aspect was the financial commitment vaccination required: importing vaccines was a costly enterprise and setting up domestic vaccine production required significant investment, like building new laboratories, training staff and importing and keeping expensive lab animals. 22 This latter, economic aspect was especially important in Eastern Europe, since

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

the twentieth century it became a cornerstone for major transformations in vaccine production capacity and regarding the use of vaccines to fight other diseases in Brazil. I see these vaccines as complex sociotechnical constructs involving many different phenomena: the interactions of microorganisms, culture media and other physico-chemical and biological components that produce substances with alleged or proven immunisation effectiveness

in The politics of vaccination