1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

of information about development in Canadian schools during that period offer the historian a significant opportunity to study practical and ideological traditions of visual communications for pedagogical purposes among humanitarian agencies. The focus of historical inquiries of visual media is often on the content produced and the intended audience, with limited examination of those responsible for the logistics and pedagogical dimensions of the distribution of the materials. This article discusses the following aspects of the practices of CIDA: the purpose of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

be found? And what could they learn from each other? This special issue uses the past and present of humanitarian communication as a point of departure to begin a joint reflection on the possibilities and potentials of more collaboration. Our focus is particularly on visual media. Together, historians and practitioners discuss the role of visual media in humanitarian communication, ask how this role has formed out historically, and explore what changes it may be undergoing currently. The forum

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
Sönke Kunkel

and new visual media? I mean, how important can a Red Cross museum be in those times? RS: Well, being a museum director, I would of course say they are extremely important! [(laughter] SK: Yes, I see that point [laughter] But what exactly is it that makes them so important? RS: Let me point back to the ten-year anniversary of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany here. I remember that I gave a speech on that occasion, in which I pointed out that big companies like Mercedes, Stollwerck, or Volkswagen – they all have a corporate museum. Why

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

. Two particular qualities, however, make them distinct from other visual media: the one is their capability to create three-dimensional visual experiences by arranging films, photos, text panels, and other aesthetic objects across a museum space. The other is their ability to shape multisensory narratives that connect various media with each other. A look at the history of Red Cross museums therefore opens a promising window on the ways in which those institutions have

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Four Conversations with Canadian Communications Officers
Dominique Marshall

of power over the making and dissemination of images, the ethical principles involved in their visual practice and, finally, the concerns they share with historians. Apprenticeships and Career Trajectories among Visual Media Specialists in Canadian NGOs The course of the careers of all five publicists is marked by the history of the technical and institutional transformations of the media industry, from the decrease in size and number of newspapers, magazines, and news agencies, to the multiplication of online platforms, the deregulation of news outlets

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

brought back some Soviet footage after a visit to the Volga region in November 1921. 3 These movies demonstrate a growing competition to use visual media to promote relief operations in Russia, Armenia, or Greece. Although, nothing competed with the massive commercial success of Auction of Souls , a movie adapted from the book Ravished Armenia , written by a survivor of the genocide, Aurora Mardiganian, and released in 1919 by NER. The plot depicted the deportation of entire Armenian families and religious leaders in April 1915, killed along the forced marches or

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Gary Banham

something of the distinction between them. The photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe are a reference of some import for discussing the nature of visual media. In the posthumously published collection Pictures the most explicitly erotic of Mapplethorpe’s photographs are presented together.36 There is for example the four-picture sequence Helmut and Brooks (1978), Fist Fuck (1978), Double Fist Fuck (1978) and Fist Fuck (1978). These works caused considerable controversy and have been at the centre of battles about censorship. The point of discussing them is not to revisit this

in The new aestheticism
Tinne Claes and Katrin Pilz

). Bonah , C . and Laukötter , A . (eds), Body, Capital, and Screens: Visual Media and the Healthy Self in the 20th Century ( Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2020 ). Claes , T . and Deblon

in Medical histories of Belgium

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.